generation

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generation

1. the act or process of bringing into being; production or reproduction, esp of offspring
2. 
a. a successive stage in natural descent of organisms: the time between when an organism comes into being and when it reproduces
b. the individuals produced at each stage
3. the normal or average time between two such generations of a species: about 35 years for humans
4. a phase or form in the life cycle of a plant or animal characterized by a particular type of reproduction
5. production of electricity, heat, etc.
6. Physics a set of nuclei formed directly from a preceding set in a chain reaction

generation

  1. a body of people who were born in the same period, variously defined.
  2. the period between the birth of such a group and the birth of their children, which, for demographic purposes, is usually accepted as 30 years.
MANNHEIM distinguished between generation as location (a birth cohort), and generation as actuality, where there is a sense of belonging to a group because of shared experience or feeling, e.g. the Sixties Generation, the Vietnam Generation. See also AGE SET, AGE GROUP, AGEING, LIFE COURSE.

Generation

 

in biology, a group of individuals with the same degree of kinship in relation to their common ancestors; the immediate offspring of the preceding generation. The longevity of a generation corresponds to the average reproductive age of an aggregate of individuals in a given species.


Generation

 

in demography, a term referring to people born in the same year. (The term “cohort” is also used.) The interaction and succession of generations constitute the age structure of a society. The term “generation” is also applied to a stage or step in descent from a common ancestor (grandfather, father, son, and so forth), with the interval between steps usually reckoned at 30 years.

A society’s age structure and the relationships that develop between generations are biological, social, and historical in character. They are biological in that the alternation of generations is linked to the natural life cycle, and social in that the division of functions among age groups and the criteria for this division depend on the socioeconomic structure of society. They are historical because each generation begins at a particular time. The members of a generation are united by certain lifetime experiences, and therefore, each generation is unique and unrepeatable. In demography, generational analysis makes it possible to discover long-range trends in population dynamics, as well as changes in the patterns of reproduction of the population and the length of productive life, for example.

Among the problems studied by sociologists and ethnologists are the relationship between age groups and the social structure, the social division of labor, and the methods of socialization and education of young people. The relationship between age groups and other factors may be rigid and direct or fairly flexible and indirect. In primitive society there was an inflexible, formal system of age groups (sometimes called age classes by ethnologists). Membership in them was formalized and associated with certain specific rights and obligations. In modern society the formal boundaries between age groups have been partially erased and have become indefinite. Nonetheless, age remains an important social and psychological characteristic.

In research on cultural history, the concept of the “generation” has primarily a symbolic meaning. It is associated less with a common time of birth than with the common, meaningful experiences of people who participated in or who lived at the time of certain important historical events (for example, “the generation of the October Revolution,” “the generation of the Great Patriotic War”). The concept is also applied to people linked by common intellectual orientations or attitudes (for example, the “lost generation”). The “life span” of such conventional generations is conditional and chronologically loose, and their designations are purely descriptive. The problem of generations is often discussed in connection with the problems of young people and the youth movement.

In non-Marxist literature there have been attempts to make the concept of the “generation” the basis for universal historical periodization (for example, in the works of J. Ortega y Gasset and J. Marias of Spain) or to represent the “conflict of generations” as a universal moving force in history (L. S. Feuer of the USA, for example). Marxist sociology rejects so abstract an approach. The age structure of any society is closely linked with its socioeconomic class structure. Therefore, the actual relationships among the representatives of different generations, including the relationships between parents and children, may be understood only in the context of the more general social situation (the pace of historical development, the character of social conflicts, and the level of ideological cohesiveness or division in a society, for example).

REFERENCES

Urlanis, B. Ts. Istorih odnogo pokoleniia. (Sotsial’ no-áemograficheskii ocherk.) Moscow, 1968.
Preemstvennost’ pokolenii kak sotsiologicheskaia problema. Moscow, 1973.
Eisenstadt, S. N. From Generation to Generation, 2nd ed. New York, 1966.
Riley, M. W., and A. Foner. Aging and Society, vols. 1–3. New York, 1968–72.

I. S. KON

generation

[‚jen·ə′rā·shən]
(biology)
A group of organisms having a common parent or parents and comprising a single level in line of descent.
(computer science)
Any one of three groups used to historically classify computers according to their electronic hardware components, logical organization and software, or programming techniques; computers are thus known as first-, second-, or third-generation; a particular computer may possess characteristics of all generations simultaneously.
One of a family of data sets, related to one another in that each is a modification of the next most recent data set.

generation

An attempt to classify the degree of sophistication of programming languages.

See First generation language -- Fifth generation language.

generation

An instance or version of something with regard to past occurrences. For example, the second generation of a product is the second version of the item, with the implication that some changes have been made.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, assumptions on the generation interval and mating structure were characteristic to breeding programs for greenlip abalone and influence genetic gains over the time frame that was used in this study.
The buffaloes are recognized for their long productive and reproductive life and the need for herd growth over the years allows some farmers to maintain the reproducing animals in the herd for longer periods, increasing the generation interval (MALHADO et al.
Because generation intervals are difficult to observe, we used the serial interval as a proxy for the generation interval (18) and assumed equivalence.
Generation interval, observed in our study, was larger for female's pathways, than for male's pathways in all breeds, expect the PN.
However, it should also be noted that the success of genetic improvement programs is critically dependent on the knowledge of several factors that potentially interfere on selection, such as effective size of the population, generation interval and genetic variability (MALHADO et al.
The effective population size and generation interval were computed using ENDOG program (Gutierrez and Goyache, 2005).
from another epidemic in another country) was available to estimate a generation interval for RVF at the farm level and in 2 dimensions (i.
4, assuming a short generation interval of 3 days, and 1.
The annual rate of inbreeding was derived by dividing the rate of inbreeding by the generation interval calculated from the average parental age at the birth of an animal.
An approach requiring fewer assumptions has been proposed by Wallinga and Teunis (2), in which the distribution of the generation interval of the disease and the epidemic curve are directly analyzed and suffice to provide estimates.
The two principal aims of the scheme are to promote rapid genetic improvement via reduced generation intervals and improved selection differentials and secondly, to improve the accuracy of EBVs by increasing the connectedness (related animals) amongst herds.
MLC's Mary Browne said: "The aim of the scheme is to promote rapid genetic progress within the pedigree beef herd by reducing generation intervals and improved genetic selection differentials.

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