To test the genetic differentiation
among and within populations, Arlequin 3.5 (Excoffier and Lischer, 2010) was employed to perform an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA).
Negative FST values were found between Ningde and Xiamen and between Keelung and other populations, which suggests that the genetic differentiation
among individuals was higher than that within populations.
The [F.sub.ST] value is an indicator of genetic differentiation
These features combine to raise the possibility that nighthawk habitats in southeastern South Dakota may be sufficiently fragmented to produce genetic differentiation
among populations from different urban locations.
Subpopulations assigned by the Bayesian clustering method were checked for differentiation between each other by using the weighed analysis (standard ANOVA) of genetic differentiation
(Cockerham 1973) performed with Genepop.
(2003) on Donax serra Roding, 1798 (bivalve) and Waters & Roy (2004) and Ayers & Waters (2005) with Patriella regularis (Verrill, 1867) (asteroid), related the genetic differentiation
found among populations of such marine invertebrates with the upwelling phenomena occurring in their studied regions.
The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 31.79% of the total variance is between populations and 68.21% within populations, demonstrating that the higher genetic differentiation
is at intrapopulation component than at interpopulation component (Table 5).
However, regarding wild soybeans in Northeast China as a single population, their genetic diversity and population structure have not been fully understood using molecular markers; in particular, the genetic differentiation
of geographical populations of this region has not been well investigated.
and Cluster Analysis among Populations
Finally, to assess whether genetic differentiation
follows a pattern of isolation by geographical distance (IBD), the Euclidean geographical distances between populations were obtained through the program ArcGis v.