This highly versatile parameter is even used as a genetic distance
measure between two populations instead of a fixation index among many populations (42).
Scores in respect of all primers were then pooled for constructing a single data matrix, which was used to estimate polymorphic loci, overall gene frequencies, gene diversity (Nei, 1973), genetic distance
(Nei, 1978) and constructing an Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) dendrogram using POPGENE, version 1.31 (Yeh et al., 1999) and 'Tools for Population Genetic Analyses (TFPGA, Miller, 1997) software packages.
QH411, FM066, and cloning larvae of Oreaster have no genetic distance
in this marker.
The intraspecific genetic distance
ranged from 0.016 to 0.062 in 3 geographical populations of EN, of which the smallest genetic distance
was between EN1 and EN3 and the largest one between EN2 and EN3.
The estimated mean values of the total inbreeding ([F.sub.IT]), within line inbreeding ([F.sub.IS]) and genetic distance
were 0.367,0.160, and 0.243 respectively.
The genetic distance
between the individuals of each population is in accordance with the results of the genetic structure, in which the greatest diversity among and within populations was obtained by the same population (3-RTI).
The [F.sub.ST]-value amounted to 0.021, chord distance was 0.038, and genetic distance
according to Nei (1978) was 0.022.
analyses using the 16S rRNA fragments in MEGA5 (31) revealed strains Candidatus B.
From Table 2, it was summarized that BOX-PCR clustered the isolates into 4, 6, and 6 clusters, with discriminatory indices 0.665, 0.809, and 0.862, at genetic distance
percentages of 6.3%, 11.2%, and 16.9%, respectively.
10.2 (ESRI, 2011); and then a simple Mantel test was performed between the Nei genetic distance
(1972; 1978) and geographic distance, between the genetic differentiation ([F.sub.ST]) and geographic distance, and between the linearized genetic differentiation ([F.sub.ST]/ 1-[F.sub.ST]) and geographic distance (log), with 10 000 permutations using the software PASSaGE 2 v.184.108.40.206.
It is worth noting that whereas the genetic distance
between species Crassostrea talonata from Peru and that from China is below the interspecific distances among most known species, it is comparable with that between Crassostrea gigas gigas and Crassostrea gigas angulata that are considered as two subspecies (Wang et al.