liability

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liability,

in law, an obligation of one party to another, usually to compensate financially. It is a fundamental aspect of torttort,
in law, the violation of some duty clearly set by law, not by a specific agreement between two parties, as in breach of contract. When such a duty is breached, the injured party has the right to institute suit for compensatory damages.
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 law, although liability may also arise from duties entered into by special agreement, as in a contractcontract,
in law, a promise, enforceable by law, to perform or to refrain from performing some specified act. In a general sense, all civil obligations fall under tort or contract law.
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 or in the carrying out of a fiduciaryfiduciary
, in law, a person who is obliged to discharge faithfully a responsibility of trust toward another. Among the common fiduciary relationships are guardian to ward, parent to child, lawyer to client, corporate director to corporation, trustee to trust, and business
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 duty. Liability is not always the result of an intentionally damaging act or of some proved fault like negligencenegligence,
in law, especially tort law, the breach of an obligation (duty) to act with care, or the failure to act as a reasonable and prudent person would under similar circumstances.
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. The affixing of liability may once have been simply a peace-preserving alternative to the practice of an injured party taking vengeance. Further, the law's emphasis has long been that one who is able to pay (who, in modern terms, has "deep pockets") should pay one who has lost something through an action of the payer, even if that action was blameless.

Vicarious liability is the duty of a principal, e.g., an employer, to pay for losses occasioned by the acts of an agent, e.g., an employee. Strict liability, under which those engaging in certain undertakings (e.g., such "ultrahazardous" practices as the industrial use of high explosives) are held responsible for injury without inquiry into fault, has been increasingly imposed by courts and by statute in the 19th and 20th cent. One response has been the growth of the liability insurance industry, offering such coverage as physicians' malpracticemalpractice,
failure to provide professional services with the skill usually exhibited by responsible and careful members of the profession, resulting in injury, loss, or damage to the party contracting those services.
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 insurance. An area that has been the focus of much litigation, legislation, and debate in recent decades is product liability, under which heavy strict liability costs have been imposed on makers of such varied items as foods, drugs, cosmetics, and automobiles.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Susanna Larsson, Ph.D., from the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, and Hugh Markus, M.D., from the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, applied a Mendelian randomization design to examine the correlation between genetic liability for insomnia and major cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and ischemic stroke.
Thanks to the children of the 90s study, we were able to examine at multiple time points the relationships between the strongest risk factors such as bullying and maternal depression, as well as factors such as genetic liability," researchers suggest.
The above findings concerning genes of small effect enable the calculation of a polygenic risk score estimating an individual's genetic liability to schizophrenia and similar psychoses.
Now, what they really need is a biologist who is an expert in genetics to help them interpret the information and understand what genetic liability their subjects may face, Leve said.
In exploring the underlying neurobiology of suicide, research focused on genetic liability, neurochemical and neuroendocrinological aspects as well as structural and functional alterations in the suicidal brain.
Neurocognitive performance may be able to serve as a potential trait marker for SZ and BD and can suggest the degree of genetic liability with their first-degree relatives.