Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Wikipedia.
Related to genocide: Armenian Genocide


genocide, in international law, the intentional and systematic destruction, wholly or in part, by a government of a national, racial, religious, or ethnic group. Although the term genocide was first coined in 1944, the crime itself has been committed often in history; one such example is the massacre of Armenians in Ottoman Turkey (1894–96). The term was initially used to describe the systematic campaign for the extermination of peoples carried on by Nazi Germany, in its attempts in the 1930s and 40s to destroy the entire European Jewish community, and to eliminate other national groups in Eastern Europe. In 1945, the charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal listed persecution on racial or religious grounds as a crime for which the victorious Allies would try Nazi offenders. It established the principle of the individual accountability of government officials who carried out the extermination policies. The United Nations, by a convention concluded in 1949, defined in detail the crime of genocide and provided for its punishment by competent national courts of the state on whose territory the crime was committed, or by international tribunal. Charging that the convention violated national sovereignty, especially in its provision for an international tribunal and in the potential liability of an individual citizen, the United States did not ratify it until 37 years later, in 1986. An international tribunal was established to prosecute genocide cases in the aftermath of the slaughter of more than 500,000 Tutsis in Rwanda in 1994. In 1995 top civilian and military Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat leaders were charged by an international tribunal with genocide in the killing of thousands of Muslims during the breakup of the former Yugoslavia. In 2018 former Khmer Rouge leaders were convicted of genocide in the deaths or deportation of Cambodian ethnic Vietnamese and Cham Muslims in the 1970s.


See studies by I. L. Horowitz (1981), L. Kuper (1982), E. Staub (1989), S. Power (2001), D. J. Goldhagen (2009), and P. Sands (2016).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


the deliberate and systematic destruction of a whole nation, or an ethnic, ‘racial’ or cultural group. Though earlier periods in history have witnessed institutionalized violence against particular groups (for example, religious dissidents, indigenous peoples, ‘witches’), often conducted by or on behalf of the Church and state, there are persuasive arguments for the claim that it is only under the conditions associated with late MODERNITY that genocide becomes a reality (Horowitz, 1980). BAUMAN's study (1989) of the Nazi Holocaust is perhaps the best known example of this thesis. If modernity is understood to involve the emergence of the NATION STATE and the elaboration of a BUREAUCRACY capable of keeping under surveillance and regulating its population, with the enhancement of scientific and technological power and the development of INSTRUMENTAL RATIONALITY as the dominant mode of thought and action, then the capacity of ‘modern times’ to effect the systematic destruction of populations is clear.

The 20th century continued to furnish examples of genocide, including the ‘killing fields’ of Pol Pot's Cambodia, the inter-tribal massacres in Rwanda and the persecution of the East Timoreans by the Indonesian government, adding weight to the claim that genocide has become one of the unacceptable faces of modernity

Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(from Greek génos, clan or tribe, and Latin caedo, I kill), the extermination of individual groups of the population for racial, national, or religious motives; one of the gravest crimes against humanity. Crimes of genocide are organically linked with fascism and similar reactionary “theories” that preach racial and national hatred and intolerance and the rule of so-called superior races over inferior races.

Crimes of genocide were committed on a mass scale by the Hitlerites during World War II (1939-45) in occupied European countries, especially against the Slavic and Jewish population. Millions of people of different nationalities were exterminated in fascist death camps. The ruling circles of several imperialist states flagrantly violate the Conventions of 1948 and 1965, by pursuing a policy of genocide within the country as well as the territories under their rule and using this policy in the struggle against the national liberation movement. A policy of genocide and apartheid has become the state policy in the Republic of South Africa and in Rhodesia.

The punishability of genocide has been established by statutes of international military tribunals (the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals) as well as by the special international Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, which was approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations on Dec. 9, 1948. In the convention genocide means acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, any national, ethnic, racial, or religious group as such—namely, killing members of such a group, causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group, deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part, imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group, and forcibly transferring children from one group to another. The convention also makes punishable conspiracy with intent to commit genocide, incitement and attempt to commit genocide, and complicity in genocide. The convention provides for the prevention and punishment of crimes of physical and biological genocide. During the drafting of the convention the representative from the USSR insisted on also including a prohibition on national and cultural genocide, which expresses itself in measures and acts directed against use of the national language and against the national culture of any group of the population; however, the imperialist powers refused to accept this proposal or to extend the operation of the convention to the colonies, in which crimes of genocide are perpetrated on a mass scale. In 1965 the United Nations adopted a convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination, which condemns racism, one of the forms of which is genocide.

In the Soviet Union and the other socialist states any limitation of the rights of citizens or the establishment of any privileges for citizens based on their racial, national, or religious affiliation, as well as the preaching of racial or national discrimination or hatred and neglect, is prohibited and punished by the law.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


See also Brutality, Massacre.
largest Nazi extermination camp; more than 1,000,000 deaths there. [Ger. Hist.: Hitler, 958–959, 970, 1123]
Babi Yar
ravine near Kiev where Nazis slaughtered 10,000 Jews. [Russ. Hist.: Wigoder, 56]
Nazi slave labor and extermination camp. [Ger. Hist.: Hitler, 1187, 1188]
showcase of Nazi atrocities. [Ger. Hist.: Hitler, 1055]
primarily work camp, experienced share of Nazi horrors. [Ger. Hist.: Hitler, 1055]
Final Solution
Nazi plan decided fate of 6,000,000 Jews. [Ger. Hist.: Hitler, 1037–1061]
Nazi attempt at extermination of European Jewry (1933–1945). [Jew. Hist.: Wigoder, 266–267]
Nazi extermination camp. [Ger. Hist.: Hitler, 970]
Nazi extermination camp. [Ger. Hist.: Wigoder, 113]
My Lai
American army division annihilates population of entire Vietnamese hamlet (March 16, 1968). [Am. Hist.: Kane, 450]
women’s concentration camp in Germany. [Ger. Hist.: Shirer, 1275]
Nazi concentration camp. [Ger. Hist.: Shirer, 375]
Six Million Jews
their deaths a testimony to Nazi “Final Solution.” [Eur. Hist.: Hitler, 1123]
Nazi extermination camp. [Ger. Hist.: Hitler, 970]
Wannsee Conference
“Final Solution” plotted and scheduled. [Ger. Hist.: Wigoder, 619]
Zyklon B
hydrogen cyanide; used by Nazis for mass extermination in concentration camps. [Ger. Hist.: Hitler, 970]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


the policy of deliberately killing a nationality or ethnic group
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
'We owe the next generation a better world, where genocide and mass atrocities do not lurk at their doorstep.
The Institute emphasized that this is actually the position of the Canadian Government which gives hope that Srebrenica genocide will never be forgotten.
He said mass killings are being done in the occupied Kashmir and genocide watch has issued an alert after witnessing all the situation and circumstances.
Ibrahim is currently a director at the Center for Global Policy in Washington, DC, and is working on creating the Rohingya Genocide Archives, which aims to investigate and document the crimes committed against the Rohingya by Myanmar and create a databank that can then be used by scholars, historians, researchers and any possible future tribunals.
Muyoboke requested convicts who apologized to make a step further mobilizing other inmates to tell the truth and reveal where genocide victims were dumped to be accorded decent burial.
The post Erdogan: 'nothing to hide' on 1915 genocide appeared first on Cyprus Mail .
'He appreciated Pakistan's support for Azerbaijan on the Nagorno-Karabakh issue and for standing by the victims of Khojaly genocide.Pakistan has not extended recognition to the newly independent state of Armenia to express solidarity with the people of Azerbaijan, 'he added.
Sources: New York Times, BBC,, Cambodia Tribunal Monitor, United Nations Genocide Convention
(I will give this book to all my postgraduate students as a model of how to write academically.) The first part of the book clearly describes the main arguments explored in the genocide literature.
Critics of the current name of the museum often said that Lithuania's accent on the crimes committed by the Soviet rule as genocide downplayed the Jewish genocide by Nazi Germany, which Lithuanian collaborators also played a part in.
Some common threads can nonetheless be found across all contributions: the theorization of genocide, the scope of realities to be studied in relation to it, and the question of the methodology to adopt in such studies.
The introduction of the concept of cultural genocide in public discourse has produced both acute controversy and extensive commentary.