genome


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Related to genome: Human genome, Genome sequencing

genome:

see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
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.

genome

the overall genetic constitution of an organism/species as constituted by the chromosomal makeup of every member (the term arises from a combination of the terms ‘gene’ and ‘chromosome’). See also GENETICS, HUMAN GENOME PROJECT.

Genome

 

a haploid chromosome set; the sum total of the genes localized in the individual set of chromosomes of a given organism. The term was introduced in 1920 by the German biologist H. Winkler. The genome is usually understood to mean the sum of the genes concentrated in the chromosomes, without taking into account the hereditary determinants connected with the structures of cytoplasm. In the gametes of diploid organisms, as well as in the cells of haploid organisms, there is one genome; in the somatic cells of diploid organisms there are two genomes. With an increase in ploidy of the cells, the number of genomes grows. In fertilization, the genomes of the paternal and maternal gametes unite. As a rule, genomes obtained from paternal and maternal gametes are homologous. Homology between all or some genomes exists in all but distant hybrids. Absolute homology of two genomes may be defined as the coinciding of the linear arrangement of the genes in every chromosome. This coinciding ensures the possibility of the normal conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis.

Changes in the number of chromosomes (for example, polyploidy or an increase or loss of individual chromosomes) are called genomic mutations. An organism in which one and the same genome is repeated several times is called au-topolyploid. An organism in which different genomes are combined is called allopolyploid. Wheats may serve as an example of the allopolyploids. The haploid number of chromosomes in hard wheat is 14, in soft wheat, 21; and in einkorn, seven. By hybridization and the study of the conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis, it was ascertained that in all wheats there is one common genome (genome A) made up of seven chromosomes. In hard and soft wheat there are two common genomes (genomes A, B), each having seven chromosomes. Finally, in soft wheat, there is still another special genome (genome D), also made up of seven chromosomes. Thus, the genomic formula for einkorn is AA and for hard wheat it is AABB. Soft wheat, which has arisen in the process of evolution by the crossing of three different wild cereals and by the doubling of the number of chromosomes in the hybrids, has the genomic formula AABBDD.

In the experiments of the Soviet geneticist G. D. Kar-pechenko, radish and cabbage genomes were combined for the first time in a hybrid organism. By means of corresponding crossings and cytological analysis, the origin of separate genomes can be established. For example, V. A. Rybin obtained (resynthesized) a cultivated plum by crossing the cherry plum and the sloe; thus it was established that the genome of a plum includes cherry plum and sloe genomes. Of great significance in understanding the structure and functioning of the genome have been the establishment of the structure of the molecules of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and of the mechanisms of their replication, and the establishment of the means of “tracing” and transmitting genetic information.

V. N. SOIFER and V. V. KHVOSTOVA

genome

[′jē‚nōm]
(genetics)
The genetic endowment of a species.
The haploid set of chromosomes.

genome

, genom
1. the full complement of genetic material within an organism
2. all the genes comprising a haploid set of chromosomes
References in periodicals archive ?
WHO's advisory committee on developing global standards for governance and oversight of human genome editing was announced by Dr Tedros in December 2018.
S'adressant a la deuxieme reunion du Comite sur la gouvernance efficace et le controle de la revision du genome humain, le Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Directeur general de l'OMS, a declare : "Depuis notre derniere reunion, certains scientifiques ont annonce leur volonte d'editer le genome des embryons et de la mener a terme.
Digital genome is one such emerging technology that avails the complete set of genes in digital format which aid in the detailed understanding of genes and their biological functions.
The human genome is the complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell and is composed of DNA that is packed within 23 pair of chromosomes.
"For the first time in animals, we have assembled a high-quality genome, permitting the discovery of all the genetic differences between two individuals within a species," said Mahul Chakraborty, a postdoctoral scholar in the Emerson laboratory and first author on the study.
In the course of a first infection, a small fragment of the viral genome a a kind of signature a is copied into the CRISPR genomic island (an extra piece of genome, outside of the parent genome text).
The technology segment of the genome editing/genome engineering market is classified into CRISPR, TALEN, ZFN, antisense, and other technologies (PiggyBac, Flp-In, Adenine Base Editor, and Jump-In).
One of the more immediate uses of the data is for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which compare the genomes of people with and without a disease to search for regions of the genome that contain variants associated with that disease.
The company has received national recognition and become a vanguard in fields such as personal genomics and genome research services.
Learning the functions of those regions will help scientists better understand diseases, drug side effects, and the mechanisms by which the genome functions.
"This project aims to discover the Saudi genome characteristics and features compared to other ethnic groups," said Dr.
"This genome will allow researchers to understand how our genes work and how genetic variants can cause disease in ways that cannot be easily studied in humans or other organisms," said Dr Derek Stemple, senior author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.