As mentioned previously, alterations in the coronal plane can have profound effects on the quadriceps angle, and these often can be visualized with the patient standing; they include genu valgum
, a bayonet tibia, squinting or inward facing patellae, and the miserable malalignment syndrome.
Clinical and radiological examination showed that 90.5 per cent of the children in endemic group had varying features of rickets, secondary hyperparathyroidism and bony leg deformity such as genu valgum
, genu varum, bowing, rotational and wind-swept deformities.
Patients are also noted to have deformities secondary to osteoarthritis and joint laxity, including cervical spine instability, genu valgum
, genu varum, and genu recurvatum.
This patient's main skeletal problems are the degeneration and contracture of the hips and the progressive, symmetric genu valgum
(knock knees), that have affected the way she walked.
Such morbidities include the Pick Wickian syndrome, orthopedic disorders such as genu valgum
and genu varum, respiratory disorders such as upper airway obstruction.
Rarely genu recurvatum, genu varum, genu valgum
, hypoplasia of cruciate ligaments, pectus excavatum, scoliosis, increased lumbar lordosis, spondylolisthesis, spondylosis, spina bifida, etc.
The increased angle of anteversion is associated with CDH, Perthes, slipped epiphysis, cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, postural defects, squinting patellae, apparent genu valgum
, tibial extorsion, flat foot, and in toeing.
The length of the trunk with narrow chest, the stunted growth of upper and lower extremities, knock knee with genu valgum
are quite common findings in Achondroplasia (9) and EVC syndrome.
There are few additional clinical signs & symptoms like muscle weakness, joint pain, genu valgum
but no Kypho- scoliosis, limited extension of elbow, corneal diameter-13 mm or more, deep anterior chamber, high myopia and astigmatism without lens subluxation (9).
Extremities appear slightly shortened, with severe coxa vara, genu valgum
, multiple accessory epiphyses in hands and feet, and talipes equinovarus.
patella alta, increased Q-angle with lateral position of the tibial tuberosity, genu valgum
, ligamentous hyperlaxity, vastus medialis muscle hypoplasia, external tibial torsion, subtalar joint pronation and increased femoral anteversion.
Similarly, any condition that causes the pelvis to drop on one side, such as genu valgum
of the knee or asymmetrical tightness of frontal plane abduction/adduction musculature of the hip joint, would likely result in a compensatory scoliosis.