While forecasters can sample instantaneous snapshots of traditional NWP fields (e.g., 500-mb geopotential
height and others commonly used to assess synoptic-scale features) every 1-6 h during the model forecast and capture most information relevant to their conceptual understanding of the forecast scenario, this is not true for diagnostic CAM fields tied to explicitly simulated convection, as these often evolve in important ways on time scales of minutes.
The GOCE (short for Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer), GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) and LAGEOS (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) based satellite-only global geopotential
model (GGM) GO_CONS_GCF_2_DIR_R5 (Bruinsma et al.
Units abbreviations: celsius = C, degrees = o, geopotential
meters = gpm, meters = m, hectopascals = hPa, millimeters = mm, minutes = ', percent = %.
This is further illustrated in Figure 7(c) where the vector winds are southeasterly over the Free State region that are driven by a low pressure anomaly situated to the southeast of the subcontinent as indicated by the geopotential
The satellite gravity missions have significantly amended determination of global geopotential
models of the Earth's gravity field (Bilker et al., 2003; Daho, 2010; Kotsakis and Kotsambalos, 2010).
Predictors such as mean sea level pressure, humidity, geopotential
height, relative humidity, and temperature may be used to downscale precipitation forecasts to the desired region and popularity [2-13].
Here q = [partial derivative][psi]/[partial derivative]t, where [psi] = [PHI]/f is a geostrophic stream function and [PHI] is the geopotential
; 1/[L.sup.2.sub.0] = A[R.sub.c]f/P is a coefficient that implicitly depends on [w.sub.0]; [R.sub.c] is a correlation coefficient that describes statistical relationship between the surface pressure and the mid-tropospheric geopotential
; F = -J([psi], [[nabla].sup.2][psi] + f), where [mathematical expression not reproducible] is Jacobian.
The rainfall geopotential
energy and the geothermal energy constitute about 95% of the natural emergy influencing the system.
The aim of this study is to present the evaluations based on comparisons of geoid heights that are computed from several global geopotential
models (GGMs) and the GNSS/levelling data.
numbers are used for determining the differences in surveyed geometric heights and "gravimetrically corrected" normal heights.
The daily data from May to October of the past 30 years from 1982 to 2011 were obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NECP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), including horizontal wind field and geopotential
height field at 850 hPa and 200 hPa; geopotential
height field at 500 hPa; sea level pressure field with a resolution of 0.5[degrees] x 0.5[degrees]; and sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and precipitation rate in the Gaussian grid.