Notice that in fine vortical structures, where the centrifugal force becomes important, the gradient wind balance (between pressure gradient, Coriolis and centrifugal forces) could advantageously replace the geostrophic
balance for constraining slow modes.
They found that the wave drag dissipated a substantial fraction of the wind energy input, significantly reduced both kinetic energy and stratification near the bottom, and reduced the model sea surface height variance and geostrophic
surface kinetic energy by measurable amounts of ~20%, while the performance of the model relative to in situ and altimetric measurements of eddy kinetic energy was not negatively impacted.
These squids normally exhibit complex population structures in association with geostrophic
currents, protracted spawning, and latitudinal migrations as a strategy to spread--over space and time--the risks of their short, semelparous life cycle (O'Dor, 1998).
In the tropics, all quasi-horizontal motion realized from thermodynamic forcing is synonymous with ageostrophic motion because the geostrophic
adjustment time scale is essentially infinite relative to the diurnal heating by solar radiation and moist convection.
Since the density field near the basin boundaries sets the overall shear of the basinwide geostrophic
circulation, wind-forced changes in that density field can modify AMOC strength (Hirschi and Marotzke 2007).
Global and accurate SLP observations are important because they allow the description, with a good approximation, of the geostrophic
and barotropic global atmospheric circulation (Blunden and Arndt 2013), which accounts for the largest part of the total atmospheric circulation.
 that the upper levels (500 hPa) maximum intensity and size of the explosive cyclones and the maximum geostrophic
vorticity at 500 hPa in the Mediterranean are formed at the same area.
Baehr, 2016: Impact of observed North Atlantic multidecadal variations to European summer climate: A quasi geostrophic
Ludwick, "Lead (Pb) concentrations associated with 1000-MB geostrophic
back trajectories at Quillayute, Washington," Atmospheric Environment, vol.
If ' the isobars are at four-mb intervals and they're spaced about 100 NM apart at the latitude of Chicago, the geostrophic
wind equals 40 knots.
So, your upper-level divergence is going to be right here, right as you start to approach, as the wind starts to get more geostrophic
and approach that supergeostrophic flow at the top of the ridge.
2), produced by the cross-coastal geostrophic
momentum balance, was also observed here (Salas-Monreal & Valle-Levinson, 2009; Salas-Monreal et al., 2009).