geranyl


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geranyl

[jə′ran·əl]
(organic chemistry)
C10H17 The functional group from geraniol, (CH3)2:CHCH2CH2·CHCH3:CH·CH2OH.
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SQs and OSQ catalyze reactions that convert the pyrophosphate of geranyl, pyrophosphate of farnesyl, and geranyl-geranyl into 57-66 different terpenes [28].
It was suggested that the precursor geranyl diphosphate (GDP) was able to form [gamma]-terpinene by cyclization before forming p-cymene by aromatization, which then produced carvacrol or thymol through hydroxylation.
Thujone (trans), [alpha]-pinene, [beta]-myrcene, terpinen, limonene, 1.8-cineole, linalool, bornyl acetate, citronellal, eugenol, geranyl acetate, nerol, [beta]-caryophyllene were purchased from Aldrich Company, USA.
Component RI RI number (a) (b) Unsaturated terpene 1 Santene 888 902 Monoterpene hydrocarbons 2 Tricyclene 926 934 3 [alpha]-Pinene 939 946 4 Camphene 954 959 5 [beta]-Pinene 979 980 6 3-Carene 1011 1013 7 D-Limonene 1021 1018 8 [gamma]-Terpinene 1059 1064 9 4-Carene 1128 1131 Oxygenated monoterpenes 10 Linalyl formate 1216 1218 11 [beta]-Fenchyl acetate 1232 1234 12 Bornyl acetate 1285 1286 13 [alpha]-Terpinyl acetate 1349 1356 14 Geranyl acetate 1365 1368 Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons 15 Isoledene 1376 1380 16 Caryophyllene 1419 1412 17 [alpha]-Humulene 1454 1460 18 [gamma]-Gurjunene 1477 1481 Oxygenated sesquiterpenes 19 Nerolidol 1563 1565 20 Selina-6-en-4-ol 1624 1625 21 [beta]-Eudesmol 1650 1652 22 Eudesm-7(11)-en-ol 1666 1670 23 [alpha]-Bisabolol 1685 1689 Total S.
The initial step in biosynthesis of isoprenoid side chain involves a condensation reaction between an IPP and its allelic isomer, Dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) by Geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS) which results in the formation of Geranyl diphosphate (GPP) with ten carbons.
The reaction of ozone and squalene produces 4-oxopentanal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, geranyl acetone, acetone, nonanal, and decanal (Fruekilde et al., 1998; Wisthaler and Weschler, 2010).
Coriander contains a unique blend of oils such as linalool and geranyl acetate that helps relax digestive muscles and ease an overactive gut.
They settled on two classes of enzymes - three pinene synthases (PS) and three geranyl diphosphate synthases (GPPS) - and experimented to see which combinations produced the best results.
Steam distilled carrot seed oil typically contains significant amounts of the sesquiterpene alcohol carotol (<67%) and the monoterpenoid ester geranyl acetate (<25%) (Figure 3), with highly variable amounts of the monoterpenoids alpha-pinene (2-25%), sabinene (<32%) and linalool (<6%), and of the sesquiterpenoids P-bisabolene (<16%) and daucol (<10%) (13,14,15,16) Three flavones, luteolin, luteolin 3'-O-P-D-glucopyranoside and luteolin 4'-O-P-D-glucopyranoside have been isolated from a methanol extract of carrot seed.
FPP synthase (FPPS), a short-chain prenyltransferase, generates FPP by completing two sequential couplings: first IPP and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) can condense in a head-to-tail manner to produce geranyl diphosphate (GPP).