Age, for both species of Corallium and Gerardia, was determined by the relation between growth rings (assumed to be annual) and colony diameter and height (Fig.
In the case of this study of Gerardia, growth ring counts judged to be annual produced a growth rate approximately 100 times greater than that estimated for a colony of Gerardia of similar size (3.1 cm basal diameter) collected at 620 m off Little Bahama Bank in the Caribbean Sea (Druffel et al., 1995).
Another positive result regarding the management of gold coral, Gerardia sp., was a relative increase in recruitment of young colonies in the Makapuu Bed in 2001 compared to Pisces V surveys in 1997.
The depth ranges encountered for both species were 380-410 m for Gerardia and 388-450 for C.
During the course of Dives PIV-016 and PIV-031, 83 colonies of Gerardia sp.
Burning also encourages the growth of native warm-season grasses and rare serpentine community plants, including sandplain gerardia. Forty acres (16 ha) on which pines had been cut down were burned last fall.
Soldier's Delight provides exceptional opportunities for recovery of sandplain gerardia and research on eastern grassland communities.
nov., Midway deepsea coral 1000-1500 Gerardia sp., Hawaiian gold coral 300-400 Lopidisis olapa, bamboo coral 350-400 Antipathes dichotoma, black coral 30-100 Antipathes grandis, pine black coral 45-100 Antipathes ulex, fern black coral 40-100 Antipathes anguina, wire black coral 20-60
For example, the established bed at Makapu'u has a 2-year harvest quota for selective gear only: 2,000 kg for C secundum, 600 kg for Gerardia sp.
's secret to long life is the constant replacement of old polyps with new ones.