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in a seed, process by which the plant embryo within the seedseed,
fertilized and ripened ovule, consisting of the plant embryo, varying amounts of stored food material, and a protective outer seed coat. Seeds are frequently confused with the fruit enclosing them in flowering plants, especially in grains and nuts.
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 resumes growth after a period of dormancy and the seedling emerges. The length of dormancy varies; the seed of some plants (e.g., most grasses and many tropical plants) can sprout almost immediately, but many seeds require a resting stage before they are able to germinate. The viability of seeds (their capacity to sprout) ranges from a few weeks (orchids) to up to 1,200 years (sacred lotus) and 2,000 years (date palm). The percentage of viable seed decreases with age. Dormancy serves to enable the seed to survive poor growing conditions; a certain amount of embryonic development may also take place. Dormancy can be prolonged by extremely tough seed coats that exclude the water necessary for germination. Internally, growth is regulated by hormones called auxins. When the temperature is suitable and there is an adequate supply of moisture, oxygen, and light—although some seeds require darkness and others are unaffected by either—the seed absorbs water and swells, rupturing the seed coat. The growing tip (radicle) of the rudimentary root (hypocotyl) emerges first and then the growing tip (plumule) of the rudimentary shoot (epicotyl). Food stored in the endosperm or in the cotyledons provides energy for the early stages of this process, until the seedling is able to manufacture its own food via photosynthesisphotosynthesis
, process in which green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria utilize the energy of sunlight to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll. Some of the plants that lack chlorophyll, e.g.
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the ability of a seed to yield normal sprouts after a set period of time in defined sprouting conditions. In the USSR seed germination is defined by state seed inspection in controlled seed analysis following a method prescribed by the All-Union State Standard (GOST 12038-66). The number of normally sprouted seeds is expressed as a percentage of the total number of seeds taken for analysis. In defining the usefulness of seeds for planting, germination is one of the most important qualities. This is of great productive importance. Seeds with high germination rapidly and conceitedly yield shoots, guaranteeing large harvests under proper conditions. High seed standards are required for norms of germination, so that first-class seeds of the basic grain crops except for hard wheat must have a germination not lower than 95 percent, and hard wheat must have one not lower than 90 percent. Seeds that do not meet the standard may not be used for planting. Germination depends to a great extent on the techniques of cultivation, method of harvesting, and storing conditions.



The beginning or the process of development of a spore or seed.
References in periodicals archive ?
SEEDS will shiver and rot if compost is too wet and cold but won't germinate at all in dry soil.
4) allows us to understand the low synchrony of germination under both temperature regimes, since seeds did not germinate at the same time.
Cereal grains such as wheat and rye will germinate on top the ground; and, oats may also germinate if the seed is in direct contact with the soil surface.
To germinate pomegranate seeds straight from the fruit, you will first need to remove the arils that cover them.
The water was then poured off, and the seeds were transferred onto wet Whatman filter paper and incubated at 22 C for two days to allow them to germinate.
In contrast, the seeds from late bloomers tend to germinate the next spring.
Not all lily species and cultivars germinate in the same manner.
From his research on wheat seeds, Wuest concluded that water vapor in the soil is actually what makes seeds germinate.
It was hypothesized that the violet colored beans exposed to the least amount of radiation would germinate the fastest, whereas the red colored beans exposed to the least amount of radiation would take the longest to germinate.
Once inhaled, the spores germinate like seeds and multiply," Tucker says.
Bark cutters in Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru all tried to thwart export of the seeds in order to maintain their monopoly--going so far as to poison seedlings' transport cases with arsenic or surreptitiously roasting seeds so they wouldn't germinate, as well as harassing and expelling European seed-seekers.
Conversely, rice produces [alpha]-amylase and can thus germinate under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions; however, enzyme synthesis and germination are delayed under anaerobic conditions (Perata et al.