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in a seed, process by which the plant embryo within the seedseed,
fertilized and ripened ovule, consisting of the plant embryo, varying amounts of stored food material, and a protective outer seed coat. Seeds are frequently confused with the fruit enclosing them in flowering plants, especially in grains and nuts.
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 resumes growth after a period of dormancy and the seedling emerges. The length of dormancy varies; the seed of some plants (e.g., most grasses and many tropical plants) can sprout almost immediately, but many seeds require a resting stage before they are able to germinate. The viability of seeds (their capacity to sprout) ranges from a few weeks (orchids) to up to 1,200 years (sacred lotus) and 2,000 years (date palm). The percentage of viable seed decreases with age. Dormancy serves to enable the seed to survive poor growing conditions; a certain amount of embryonic development may also take place. Dormancy can be prolonged by extremely tough seed coats that exclude the water necessary for germination. Internally, growth is regulated by hormones called auxins. When the temperature is suitable and there is an adequate supply of moisture, oxygen, and light—although some seeds require darkness and others are unaffected by either—the seed absorbs water and swells, rupturing the seed coat. The growing tip (radicle) of the rudimentary root (hypocotyl) emerges first and then the growing tip (plumule) of the rudimentary shoot (epicotyl). Food stored in the endosperm or in the cotyledons provides energy for the early stages of this process, until the seedling is able to manufacture its own food via photosynthesisphotosynthesis
, process in which green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria utilize the energy of sunlight to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll. Some of the plants that lack chlorophyll, e.g.
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the ability of a seed to yield normal sprouts after a set period of time in defined sprouting conditions. In the USSR seed germination is defined by state seed inspection in controlled seed analysis following a method prescribed by the All-Union State Standard (GOST 12038-66). The number of normally sprouted seeds is expressed as a percentage of the total number of seeds taken for analysis. In defining the usefulness of seeds for planting, germination is one of the most important qualities. This is of great productive importance. Seeds with high germination rapidly and conceitedly yield shoots, guaranteeing large harvests under proper conditions. High seed standards are required for norms of germination, so that first-class seeds of the basic grain crops except for hard wheat must have a germination not lower than 95 percent, and hard wheat must have one not lower than 90 percent. Seeds that do not meet the standard may not be used for planting. Germination depends to a great extent on the techniques of cultivation, method of harvesting, and storing conditions.



The beginning or the process of development of a spore or seed.
References in periodicals archive ?
Smoke plays an intriguing role in promoting the germination of seeds of many species following a fire," according to Johannes Van Staden and colleagues.
Results showed that salinity significantly slows down the germination process.
2%) for 10min and washed in sterile distilled water, before transfer to germination process (T2).
Ferns constitute a relatively simple system with which to evaluate the effect of abiotic factors on germination and with which to explore the relationship between the germination and the distribution of the species, as they lack interactions with pollinators or dispersers (Barrington, 1993).
The definition also specifies those aspects of performance reported to show variations associated with differences in vigour as: biochemical processes and reactions during germination, such as enzyme reactions and respiratory activities; rate and uniformity of seed germination and seedling growth; rate and uniformity of seedling emergence and growth in the field; and emergence ability of seeds under unfavourable conditions [16].
For the products and doses studied, zinc provided via the coating of oat seeds resulted in an increase in the yield and seed germination.
For stratification and germination tests fruits were divided into individual mericarps, further referred to as 'seeds'.
Unfortunately they require this temperature consistently for fastest germination, which is where a thermostatically controlled propagator comes in really handy.
Provide them with the information in the "Karrikins & Seed Germination" section below, and instruct them to read more on the topic, discuss the possible influence of karrikins on seed germination, formulate a hypothesis, plan an investigation, record their results, and design a poster communicating their findings.
Germination percentage, the vigor index (VI), and tolerance indices (TI) (Iqbal and Rahmati, 1992) were determined by the following formula:
The effect of original and fractionated bio-oil was analyzed as a germination promoting agent.