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in a seed, process by which the plant embryo within the seedseed,
fertilized and ripened ovule, consisting of the plant embryo, varying amounts of stored food material, and a protective outer seed coat. Seeds are frequently confused with the fruit enclosing them in flowering plants, especially in grains and nuts.
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 resumes growth after a period of dormancy and the seedling emerges. The length of dormancy varies; the seed of some plants (e.g., most grasses and many tropical plants) can sprout almost immediately, but many seeds require a resting stage before they are able to germinate. The viability of seeds (their capacity to sprout) ranges from a few weeks (orchids) to up to 1,200 years (sacred lotus) and 2,000 years (date palm). The percentage of viable seed decreases with age. Dormancy serves to enable the seed to survive poor growing conditions; a certain amount of embryonic development may also take place. Dormancy can be prolonged by extremely tough seed coats that exclude the water necessary for germination. Internally, growth is regulated by hormones called auxins. When the temperature is suitable and there is an adequate supply of moisture, oxygen, and light—although some seeds require darkness and others are unaffected by either—the seed absorbs water and swells, rupturing the seed coat. The growing tip (radicle) of the rudimentary root (hypocotyl) emerges first and then the growing tip (plumule) of the rudimentary shoot (epicotyl). Food stored in the endosperm or in the cotyledons provides energy for the early stages of this process, until the seedling is able to manufacture its own food via photosynthesisphotosynthesis
, process in which green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria utilize the energy of sunlight to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll. Some of the plants that lack chlorophyll, e.g.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the ability of a seed to yield normal sprouts after a set period of time in defined sprouting conditions. In the USSR seed germination is defined by state seed inspection in controlled seed analysis following a method prescribed by the All-Union State Standard (GOST 12038-66). The number of normally sprouted seeds is expressed as a percentage of the total number of seeds taken for analysis. In defining the usefulness of seeds for planting, germination is one of the most important qualities. This is of great productive importance. Seeds with high germination rapidly and conceitedly yield shoots, guaranteeing large harvests under proper conditions. High seed standards are required for norms of germination, so that first-class seeds of the basic grain crops except for hard wheat must have a germination not lower than 95 percent, and hard wheat must have one not lower than 90 percent. Seeds that do not meet the standard may not be used for planting. Germination depends to a great extent on the techniques of cultivation, method of harvesting, and storing conditions.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The beginning or the process of development of a spore or seed.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Germination occurred when seeds received growth regulators (p < 0.001).
Considering the specific effects concerning [GA.sub.3] application, percentages of germination varied between 19 and 51% for A.
In order to survey the effect of growing impact of growing up and applying Harmon chemistry and environmental inducers to break dormancy and Induction of germination on two varieties of fennel plant are implemented on laboratory of seed technology in Khorasgan Islamic Azad agriculture University of Isfahan analytically in 2012-2013.
Forty, 50-seed samples of each species and seed form were counted from the 30-g sample of processed seed (outlined above), weighed, and retained for germination tests.
As with the condition under light, the greater the time of scarification, the higher the values of germination. In all of the temperature regimes, the germination after scarification during 15 and 25min was similar.
In areas with high climatic variability, many annual species have seed dormancy to prevent premature seed germination during periods with rainfall or temperature conditions that are unsatisfactory for seedling growth and survival.
High seeds germination rate reduces the quantity of seeds required per unit sowing area.
Seeds were stored in brown paper bags in the laboratory at approximately 20 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C until they were used in the germination experiment during the last week of July 2013.
Considering that the thermal and hydrotime approach can be used for expressing the relationship between temperature, water potential and germination, and considering the gap in the scientific literature on thermal time analysis of germination of Cactaceae seeds, the aim of this study was to describe some germination parameters of Hylocereus setaceus seeds and to test the validity of the hydrotime model describing the seed germination in response to a range of water potentials and temperatures.
The standard germination test is done under optimal conditions, so when the field conditions are nearly optimal in cultivation time, it's results have an appropriate correlation with sprouting in the field, but these are usually better than those of sprouting in the field [27].
A box for each imbibition treatment was removed from the cold room at weekly periods to test the effect of stratification period length on germination. New plastic boxes were prepared with two sheets of blue blotter paper and saturated with 24 mL of deionized water.
The inhibition rate on seed germination (GIR) and seedling growth (SIR) were calculated using the formula of Ahn and Chung [1]: