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in a seed, process by which the plant embryo within the seedseed,
fertilized and ripened ovule, consisting of the plant embryo, varying amounts of stored food material, and a protective outer seed coat. Seeds are frequently confused with the fruit enclosing them in flowering plants, especially in grains and nuts.
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 resumes growth after a period of dormancy and the seedling emerges. The length of dormancy varies; the seed of some plants (e.g., most grasses and many tropical plants) can sprout almost immediately, but many seeds require a resting stage before they are able to germinate. The viability of seeds (their capacity to sprout) ranges from a few weeks (orchids) to up to 1,200 years (sacred lotus) and 2,000 years (date palm). The percentage of viable seed decreases with age. Dormancy serves to enable the seed to survive poor growing conditions; a certain amount of embryonic development may also take place. Dormancy can be prolonged by extremely tough seed coats that exclude the water necessary for germination. Internally, growth is regulated by hormones called auxins. When the temperature is suitable and there is an adequate supply of moisture, oxygen, and light—although some seeds require darkness and others are unaffected by either—the seed absorbs water and swells, rupturing the seed coat. The growing tip (radicle) of the rudimentary root (hypocotyl) emerges first and then the growing tip (plumule) of the rudimentary shoot (epicotyl). Food stored in the endosperm or in the cotyledons provides energy for the early stages of this process, until the seedling is able to manufacture its own food via photosynthesisphotosynthesis
, process in which green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria utilize the energy of sunlight to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll. Some of the plants that lack chlorophyll, e.g.
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the ability of a seed to yield normal sprouts after a set period of time in defined sprouting conditions. In the USSR seed germination is defined by state seed inspection in controlled seed analysis following a method prescribed by the All-Union State Standard (GOST 12038-66). The number of normally sprouted seeds is expressed as a percentage of the total number of seeds taken for analysis. In defining the usefulness of seeds for planting, germination is one of the most important qualities. This is of great productive importance. Seeds with high germination rapidly and conceitedly yield shoots, guaranteeing large harvests under proper conditions. High seed standards are required for norms of germination, so that first-class seeds of the basic grain crops except for hard wheat must have a germination not lower than 95 percent, and hard wheat must have one not lower than 90 percent. Seeds that do not meet the standard may not be used for planting. Germination depends to a great extent on the techniques of cultivation, method of harvesting, and storing conditions.



The beginning or the process of development of a spore or seed.
References in periodicals archive ?
Enhanced seeds germination can be realised by the use of biological treatments (vaccination), genetic modification, chemical and temperature treatments (Kimura and Islam, 2012; Stanisavljevic et al.
The germination was conducted in 9-cm tight-fitting Petri dishes containing one disk of Whatman No.
In order to survey the effect of growing impact of growing up and applying Harmon chemistry and environmental inducers to break dormancy and Induction of germination on two varieties of fennel plant are implemented on laboratory of seed technology in Khorasgan Islamic Azad agriculture University of Isfahan analytically in 2012-2013.
moschata, this work is aimed at comparing the allelopathic effects of Cryptocarya moschata and Ocotea odorifera aqueous leaf extracts on the germination and initial development of Lactuca sativa (lettuce).
Regardless of the temperature, germination can be delayed or prevented if there is insufficient water within the seed to generate the turgescence pressure required for cell expansion, thus seed germination is highly dependent on the water potential ([PSI]) in the substrate (Bradford and Still, 2004).
Figure 1 illustrates the accumulated germination for the best treatment.
The interactions of seed processing with plant species, germination under moisture stress, and early seedling growth are not well defined.
There were no significant differences between this treatment and the 10, 100 or 500 mg/kg treatments, but the number of germinations in the 50 mg/kg treatment was significantly different from all of the other treatments (Scheffe multiple comparison test, P[less than]0.
The standard germination tests are the most common tests to determine the germination capacity of the seed.
Fifty seed with intact cupules were randomly selected from each imbibition treatment and placed in a box for germination testing.
The inhibition rate on seed germination (GIR) and seedling growth (SIR) were calculated using the formula of Ahn and Chung [1]: