glaze


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glaze,

translucent layer that coats pottery to give the surface a finish or afford a ground for decorative painting. Glazes—transparent, white, or colored—are fired on the clay. Of the various artificial mixtures used for glazes, that for whiteware contains borax and lead, whereas a salt glaze is used for stoneware. No lead is used for porcelain. The coloring agents are oxides of different metals. In the 16th and 17th cent. glazes were also used in painting to enhance the luminosity of oil or tempera colors. Titian and Rembrandt were especially adept at glazing techniques.

glaze,

in meteorology: see sleetsleet,
precipitation of small, partially melted grains of ice. As raindrops fall from clouds, they pass through layers of air at different temperatures. If they pass through a layer with a temperature below the freezing point, they turn into sleet.
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Glaze

A ceramic coating, usually thin, glossy, and glass-like, formed on the surface of pottery earthenware; the material from which the ceramic coating is made.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Glaze

 

a 0.15-0.3 mm thick vitreous coating on ceramics, fixed by firing.

Chemically, glazes are alkaline, alkaline-earth, and other aluminosilicate and aluminoborosilicate glasses. Glaze protects ceramics from dirt, acids, and alkalies; it also waterproofs them and provides them with decorative qualities, appropriate to architectural and artistic needs.

Glazed ceramic artifacts have a history that goes back 1,000 years. In ancient Egypt, Babylonia, and Assyria, glazes were used on ornaments (such as beads and amulets), housewares (such as pottery), and construction materials (such as tiles and bricks). Glaze was produced in greenish and turquoise tones in imitation of the malachite and lazurite items which were in vogue during the period; later (c. 2550 B.C.), dark blue glazes, close to the color of indigo, appeared. Glazed objects were widely used in the tenth-13th centuries in Middle Asia, such as the azure glazed bricks used to decorate the domes of mausoleums, madrasas, and mosques. A mat-white glaze made opaque with tin oxide and known in Iran in the 12th and 13th centuries was first created in Europe in 1438 by the Italian ceramist Luca della Robbia. The so-called lusters, or glazes with metallic brilliance, were developed on a base of copper and iron oxides.

In France, B. Palissy (1510-89) produced articles with both white and colored translucent glazes. In Russia in the 16th and 17th centuries tiles with a polychrome coating were widely used. This sort of glaze was called poliva (enamel); a green poliva was known as murava.

Glazes are subdivided on the basis of sintering temperatures as refractory (1100°-1350° C) or fusible (900°-1100° C). The fusibility of a glaze depends on the nature and composition of the materials of which it is made. The glazing temperature for porcelain is 1132°-1420° C; for semiporcelain, 1250°-1280° C; for faience, 1100°-1180° C; and for majolica 940°-1040° C. Other fine coatings, such as a white or colored argillaceous slip (engobe), may also be applied to ceramic objects. Opaque white or colored glazes, used primarily in coating metallic objects, are called enamels.

The chemical composition of the refractory glazes, which withstand high firing-temperatures and are generally spread “raw” over the objects, that is, without preliminary melting (fritting), is enriched with silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide through the use of alkaline-earth oxides. The composition of these glazes includes quartz, kaolin, clay, and the natural carbonates of bivalent metals, such as dolomite and marble; most glazes also contain feldspar.

The chemical composition of the fusible glazes, which require lower firing temperatures and which usually undergo fritting, is enriched with alkaline and alkaline-earth oxides and boric anhydride. The materials used in the melting of these glazes include quartz, feldspar, borax or boric acid, strontium carbonate, magnesite, and dolomite.

Raw glazes are prepared by pulverizing the initial substances in a ball mill, with the addition of plastic clay to maintain the glass particles in a suspended state. Glazes are applied to the articles in the form of a homogeneous suspension. They are colored by mixing with pigments (for opaque coatings) and by fusion with dyeing oxides (for transparent coatings). Compounds of tin, zirconium, titanium, and other elements are used in clouding the mixtures. There are many ways of obtaining decorative coatings, including crackleware (a network of cracks), “snakeskin” (creased glaze), and “lace” (raised glaze); it is also possible to paint one glaze over another or to decorate underglazes and overglazes with paints. Glazes are applied to dried articles and then fired once, or they are applied to previously fired articles (bisque) and then glaze fired.

REFERENCES

Orlov, E. I. Glazuri, emali, keramicheskie kraski i massy, 3rd ed., parts 1-2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937-38.
Barzakovskii, V. P., and S. K. Dubrovo. Fiziko-khimicheskie svoistva glazurei vysokovol’tnogo farfora. Moscow-Leningrad, 1953.
Glazuri, ikh proizvodstvo i primenenie (collection of articles). Riga, 1964.
Nosova, Z. A. Tsirkonievye glazuri. Moscow, 1965.
Shteinberg, Iu. G. Strontsievye glazuri, 2nd ed. Leningrad-Moscow,1967.

N. IA. GOSIN


Glaze

 

a thin transparent or translucent layer of color applied over a dry or drying underlayer of paint to change, intensify, or soften the hues; to enrich the range of colors; or to achieve a unifying effect. The application of glazes was usually the last stage in the process of painting a picture in the 16th to 19th centuries.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

glaze

[glāz]
(engineering)
A glossy coating. Also known as enamel.
(hydrology)
A coating of ice, generally clear and smooth but usually containing some air pockets, formed on exposed objects by the freezing of a film of supercooled water deposited by rain, drizzle, or fog, or possibly condensed from supercooled water vapor. Also known as glaze ice; glazed frost; verglas.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

glaze

1. A ceramic coating, usually thin, glossy, and glass-like, formed on the surface of pottery, earthenware, etc.
2. The material from which the ceramic coating is made.
3. To install glass in windows, doors, storefronts, curtain walls, and various other segments of building construction.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

glaze

1. Ceramics
a. a vitreous or glossy coating
b. the substance used to produce such a coating
2. a semitransparent coating applied to a painting to modify the tones
3. a smooth lustrous finish on a fabric produced by applying various chemicals
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Prepare glaze by combining ingredients in a blender and blend until smooth.
Caption: Ice trays are great for holding, mixing and transporting glazes.
Down-firing the kiln, or leaving burners or electric elements on after the glaze has reached maturity, exposes it to excessive heat work when molten.
Coefficient of glass (glaze) thermal resistance was calculated according to Winkelman and Schott formula [6]:
Two firing schedules were selected (i) An oxidizing atmosphere was used to the maturing temperature of the glaze and the kiln was then sealed and allowed to cool to 700oC and reducing atmosphere for 25 to 30 minutes rising temperature from 50o to 70oC.
Salman is the only Pakistani ceramist who has pursued crystalline glaze to this extent and his work has been acknowledged by his peers in different parts of the world.
The watercolor lines will disappear as you apply the glaze to the boxes.
Extensive trialing of the pre-glazed products proves that this unique glaze is also highly beneficial--products do not stick to each other or to their packaging, so product damage is minimised and handling is easy.
Per serving with chili-cumin rub and honeylime-chipotle glaze: 639 cal., 62% (396 cal.) from fat; 36 g protein; 44 g fat (16 g sat.); 26 g carbo (0.8 g fiber); 1,310 mg sodium; 172 mg chol.
Invite campers to return to the clay studio during their free time to glaze bisque ware, especially those pieces that were wheel thrown.
Pricing on Sango's latest introductions, Soviero said, is sharper than ever before: $59.99 for a 20-piece set featuring the reactive glaze and $49.99 for a 20-piece set of in-glaze patterns.
Top rim oxidation often occurs when the top of the crucible doesn't receive enough heat to activate the protective glaze. Foundries often put ceramic fiber on top of the crucible to allow for expansion.