As soon as I moved to establish a healthy VSI in order to maintain glide slope
, I noticed the changes in handling characteristics that NATOPS predicts: the nose needed significant influencing with the stick to remain on-speed, and rolling the aircraft produced a gentle yaw opposite the direction of roll that made line-up slightly more challenging.
In the HUD condition, the display image was positioned so that the glide slope
and localizer references were centered on the runway threshold.
Capt Powers recognized the decrease in aircraft performance caused by the high density altitude and elected to delay gear extension until glide slope
Currently, any GPS approach aid only provides localizer guidance, with no glide slope
As my hand almost subconsciously moved slightly aft to recenter the ball and return to glide slope
, the jet quickly adjusted back to glide slope
against my intent.
In a visual approach, pilots typically don't rely on a variety of electronic aids like an instrument landing system to align the aircraft with the runway and to keep to the aircraft on the proper glide slope
. On runway 28L, the glide slope
system was not operable on the day of the accident, and is scheduled to be out of commission until 22 August 2013.
While flying the Tracy approach the GNS 430 gave me the LPV annunciation and displayed a glide slope
on the HSI--as expected.
Approaching the "in-close" position during the mishap pass, the pilot overcorrected a slightly above glide slope
position with a significant power reduction while simultaneously making a large lineup and nose-down correction.
The U-2 produces so much lift even at idle power, that to land safely without flaps and speedbrakes, the approach must be flown on a 1 1/4 degree glide slope
, approximately 2 knots above the onset of stall buffet.
With the introduction of wider runways and jet aircraft, runway centreline lighting and approach lighting were added, and touchdown zone lighting, glide slope
indicators, taxiway lighting, lighted signing and other lighting followed shortly thereafter.