Perforation

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perforation

[‚pər·fə′rā·shən]
(ordnance)
Passage of a missile completely through an object.
(science and technology)
Any hole made by boring, punching, or piercing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Perforation

 

(1) In botany, an opening in the cell membrane of a vessel in vascular plants. Water passes freely through the perforations and into the vessels. The perforations may be on the lateral and transverse walls of the cells. If a perforation is single, it is called a simple perforation (in the vessels of oaks and herbs). Multiple perforations are arranged in parallel series (scalariform perforations), in an irregular network (reticulate perforations), or as a group of approximately circular holes (foraminate perforations). Ferns have scalariform perforations, ivies reticulate perforations, and ephedras foraminate perforations.

(2) In medicine, the penetration of the wall of a hollow or tubular organ, for example, the intestine.


Perforation

 

in medicine, an opening or hole in the wall of a cavitary or tubular organ, as a result of which the cavity of the organ communicates with surrounding cavities or tissues.

Perforation may be caused by intrusion of a foreign body from the lumen of an organ (for example, perforation of the esophagus by a swallowed bone) or externally (a penetrating knife or bullet wound). It may also be caused by disruption of all layers of an organ by a pathological process, for example, perforation of an ulcer or tumor of the stomach or intestine or perforation of the vermiform appendix or the gallbladder with gangrenous appendicitis or cholecystitis.

When there is a perforation, the contents of a hollow organ, by penetrating surrounding tissue (periesophageal or perirectal) or the abdominal cavity, cause development of a rapidly progressing purulent inflammatory process called mediastinitis, paraproctitis, or peritonitis. Treatment consists in emergency surgery.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
16 Gross DJ, Jamison J, Martin K, Fields M, Dinehart SM, Surgical glove perforation in dermatological surgery.
Glove perforations were most commonly found on the index finger and thumb of the non-dominant hand, and then in decreasing order: palm, back of the hand and other fingers.
Damage to the glove was visible in 43 of the 89 perforations, but the surgeon noticed glove perforation during operations only in 9 cases.
Every 10th glove perforation is detected during the operation, and every 2nd glove perforation is invisible to the eye and recognizable only during the water leak test.
Aarnio, "Glove perforation in orthopaedic and trauma surgery.
Gompertz, "Glove perforation during surgery: what are the risks?" Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, vol.
However, a recent study from the same institution that compared blunt needles versus sharp needles for reducing glove perforations during obstetric laceration repairs showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (1.84% vs 2.26% 95% CI 0.2-2.95).
The current literature estimates that surgeons have a high lifetime risk of being exposed, due to glove perforation, to hepatitis, and HIV viruses.
The study estimated that the risk of glove perforation for the average surgeon was 35%, rising to 54% in major operations.
Wright KU, Moran CG, Briggs PJ 1993 Glove perforation during hip arthroplasty.
Underwood MJ, Weerasena N, Graham TR, Hosie K, Dunning J, Bailey JS, Firmin RK 1993 Prevalence and prevention of glove perforation during cardiac operations Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 106 (2) 375-377
Doctors' survey Generalist physicians (N=4) Circumcisions performed prior to study, median (range) Surgical 150 (10 - 200) Unicirc 0 (0 - 10) Ease of performance, n (%) Unicirc much easier 0 Unicirc easier 4 (100) Neutral 0 Surgical easier 0 Surgical much easier 0 Method of preference, n (%) Strongly prefer Unicirc 2 (50) Prefer Unicirc 2 (50) Neutral 0 Prefer surgical 0 Strongly prefer surgical 0 Glove perforations during the study, n (%) 0 1 (25) 1 2 (50) 2 0 >10 1 (25) Table 6.