Perforation

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perforation

[‚pər·fə′rā·shən]
(ordnance)
Passage of a missile completely through an object.
(science and technology)
Any hole made by boring, punching, or piercing.

Perforation

 

(1) In botany, an opening in the cell membrane of a vessel in vascular plants. Water passes freely through the perforations and into the vessels. The perforations may be on the lateral and transverse walls of the cells. If a perforation is single, it is called a simple perforation (in the vessels of oaks and herbs). Multiple perforations are arranged in parallel series (scalariform perforations), in an irregular network (reticulate perforations), or as a group of approximately circular holes (foraminate perforations). Ferns have scalariform perforations, ivies reticulate perforations, and ephedras foraminate perforations.

(2) In medicine, the penetration of the wall of a hollow or tubular organ, for example, the intestine.


Perforation

 

in medicine, an opening or hole in the wall of a cavitary or tubular organ, as a result of which the cavity of the organ communicates with surrounding cavities or tissues.

Perforation may be caused by intrusion of a foreign body from the lumen of an organ (for example, perforation of the esophagus by a swallowed bone) or externally (a penetrating knife or bullet wound). It may also be caused by disruption of all layers of an organ by a pathological process, for example, perforation of an ulcer or tumor of the stomach or intestine or perforation of the vermiform appendix or the gallbladder with gangrenous appendicitis or cholecystitis.

When there is a perforation, the contents of a hollow organ, by penetrating surrounding tissue (periesophageal or perirectal) or the abdominal cavity, cause development of a rapidly progressing purulent inflammatory process called mediastinitis, paraproctitis, or peritonitis. Treatment consists in emergency surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
Glove perforation during surgical extraction of wisdom teeth.
16 Gross DJ, Jamison J, Martin K, Fields M, Dinehart SM, Surgical glove perforation in dermatological surgery.
There are other studies that have found higher rate of glove perforation in nurses as compared with operating staffs which differs from my findings.
Glove perforation during surgery such as hip replacement arthroplasty is not an uncommon phenomenon.
In cases lasting 60 minutes or less, there was no difference in the rates of glove perforation between the blunt needle group (17/82, 21%) and the sharp needle group (14/68, 21%).
The urgency of the procedures did not affect the glove perforation rates.
The current literature estimates that surgeons have a high lifetime risk of being exposed, due to glove perforation, to hepatitis, and HIV viruses.
We did not quantify the prevalence of inner glove perforation due to the increased difficulty of maintaining a sterile operative field while exchanging the inner gloves during surgery.
The study estimated that the risk of glove perforation for the average surgeon was 35%, rising to 54% in major operations.
The problem of glove perforation, however, remains a major cause of exposure to contaminated body fluids and is yet to be solved satisfactorily (Ward 2006).
Laine T, Aarnio P 2001 How often does glove perforation occur in surgery?
Avery CM, Gallacher P, Birnbaum W 1999a Double gloving and a glove perforation indication system during the dental treatment of HIV positive patients: are they really necessary?