glucagon


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Related to glucagon: somatostatin, glucagon test

glucagon

glucagon (glo͞oˈkəgŏn), hormone secreted by the α cells of the islets of Langerhans, specific groups of cells in the pancreas. It tends to counteract the action of insulin, i.e., it raises the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucagon was first purified and crystallized in 1955; the amino acid sequence of this 29-amino acid polypeptide (see peptide) was published in 1956–57. One of the most important actions of glucagon is the promotion of glycogenolysis, i.e., the degradation of glycogen to glucose, in the liver. Glucagon stimulates adenyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate to 3′5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP).
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Glucagon

The protein hormone secreted by the pancreas which is known to influence a wide variety of metabolic reactions. Glucagon, along with insulin and other hormones, plays a role in the complex and dynamic process of maintaining adequate supplies of sugar in the blood. Glucagon has often been called the hyperglycemic-glycogenolytic factor because it causes the breakdown of liver glycogen to sugar (a process known as glycogenolysis) and thereby increases the concentration of sugar in the bloodstream (a condition known as hyperglycemia). Glucagon may also be involved in the regulation of protein and fat metabolism, gastric acid secretion and gut motility, excretion of electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium and chloride) by the kidney, contractility of heart muscle, and release of insulin from the pancreas. Glucagon is used in human medicine chiefly in certain diabetic conditions when a dangerously low blood sugar must be rapidly raised. See Carbohydrate metabolism, Glycogen, Hormone, Insulin, Pancreas

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

glucagon

[′glü·kə‚gän]
(biochemistry)
The protein hormone secreted by α-cells of the pancreas which plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism. Also known as hyperglycemic factor; hyperglycemic glycogenolytic factor.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Two randomized, multicenter, open-label, 2-period crossover trials compared a 3 mg dose of nasally administered BAQSIMI to a 1 mg dose of glucagon for injection for treatment of insulin-induced hypoglycemia.
Baqsimi was found to work as well as injected glucagon to raise blood sugar levels.
For the differentiation of the neuroendocrine tumor subtype, a glucagon assay was performed in our patient.
Studies have previously shown that nasal glucagon is comparable to intramuscular glucagon in both adult and pediatric populations.
Visit alpco.com to learn more about the STELLUX[R] Glucagon ELISA.
Amylin inhibits glucagon secretion, decreases gastric emptying and promotes satiety (feeling full), thus reducing food intake.
In this work, we studied the effect of insulin, glucagon, and 17[beta]-estradiol (E2) on secretion of human neutrophils upon adhesion to fibronectin.
3,4 Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1RA), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4i) and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are modern classes of glucose lowering drugs with lower risk of hypoglycaemia.
For glucagon analysis, blood samples were collected in EDTA vaccutainers treated with aprotinin (Trasylol 10000 KIE/ml; Bayer HealthCare AG 51368) which was added to give a final concentration of 200 KIE per ml of peripheral blood.
However, treatment in subjects with type 2 diabetes increases both plasma glucagon and endogenous glucose production, which may be the cause behind the normoglycemia during atypical DKA.
On day 42, a blood glucagon level was measured by radioimmunoassay on an ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid plasma sample (The Ohio State University Medical Center Clinical Laboratories, Columbus, OH, USA).