Glucuronic Acid

(redirected from glucuronate)
Also found in: Dictionary, Medical.

glucuronic acid

[¦glü·kyə¦rän·ik ′as·əd]
(biochemistry)
C6H10O7 An acid resulting from oxidation of the CH2OH radical ofD-glucose to COOH; a component of many polysaccharides and certain vegetable gums. Also known as glycuronic acid.

Glucuronic Acid

 

one of the uronic acids, COH(CHOH)4COOH; it is formed in the body from glucose when the latter is oxidized by a primary alcohol group. It is optically active and dissolves readily in water. Melting point, 167°-172° C. D-glucuronic acid is widespread in the animal and vegetable worlds and is a component of acid mucopolysaccharides, some bacterial polysaccharides, triterpenoid saponins, hemicellulose, and gums. Free glucuronic acid is found in blood and urine in small quantities. Certain metabolic products, including some toxic products (phenol and cresol), as well as many medications, are discharged with the urine in the form of sister compounds of glucuronic acid (glucuronides). Conversions of glucuronic acid in all animals except the monkey and guinea pig, as well as in humans, lead to the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid. Body fluids and tissues of animals (especially the liver, kidneys, and spleen, and also malignant tumors) and bacterial and plant tissues contain the enzyme β-glucuronidase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-glucuronides to free glucuronic acid and the corresponding aglycon.

G. A. SOLOV’EVA

References in periodicals archive ?
There are no major age-related differences in the overall rate of elimination of acetaminophen, but there are important differences in glucuronate and sulfate conjugates.
Enzymatic treatment of human plasma samples found that EGCG is minimally conjugated to glucuronate or sulfate, however, EGC and EC were found to be extensively glucuronidated or sulfated (Chow et al.
A small fraction (0.5%) is conjugated with glucuronic acid to form a nonvolatile, water-soluble metabolite called ethyl glucuronate. Formation of EtG is dependent on the presence of circulating ethanol, which peaks approximately three hours after the peak in ethanol concentration.
Aldosterone, cholesterol, cortisone, cortisol, danazol, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estradiol, estradiol glucuronate, estriol, estrone, progesterone, corticosterone, testosterone, norethindrone, pregnenolone sulfate, 11-deoxycortisol, 17[alpha]-hydroxypregnenolone, and 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone at concentrations of [10.sup.4]-[10.sup.5] pmol/L demonstrated no significant cross-reactivity under assay conditions (<0.001% cross-reactivity).
In contranst to P-gp, MRP-1 is primarily an active transporter of GSH, oxidized GSH, glucuronate and sulfate conjugated organic anions (Borst et al., 2000).
For the measurement of total (i.e., both conjugated and unconjugated) metanephrine and normetanephrine, sulfate and glucuronate conjugates were firstly acid hydrolyzed such that all metanephrines were in their free form before acylation.
Our enzyme digestion experiment outlined a possible path of THP metabolism by O-desmethylation and subsequent conjugation of the exposed phenolic groups with glucuronate. The disposition and metabolism of THP in humans has not been studied (2).
These functional groups in turn facilitate phase II reactions, conjugation with glucuronate, sulfate, acetate, or glutathione moieties.