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gluten,

mixture of proteinsprotein,
any of the group of highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant class of all biological molecules. Protein comprises approximately 50% of cellular dry weight.
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 present in the cereal grains. The long molecules of gluten, insoluble in water, are strong and flexible and form many cross linkages. This gives flour its characteristic chewiness and permits breads and cakes to rise during baking as the gases within expand and are trapped in the gluten superstructure. Various flours have different ratios of gluten to starch (called hardness) and are appropriate for different types of foodstuffs. Thus soft flour is used for cakes, harder flour for pastry, hard flour for bread, and the hardest, or durum, for pasta. The hereditary disease called nontropical spruesprue,
chronic disorder of the small intestine caused by impaired absorption of fat and other nutrients. Two forms of the disease exist.

Tropical sprue occurs in central and northern South America, Asia, Africa, and other specific locations.
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 is characterized by an inability to digest gluten. In this disease the gluten acts as an antigen (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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) and forms immune complexes that cause damage to the mucus lining of the intestine.

gluten

[′glüt·ən]
(biochemistry)
A mixture of proteins found in the seeds of cereals; gives dough elasticity and cohesiveness.
An albuminous element of animal tissue.

gluten

a protein consisting of a mixture of glutelin and gliadin, present in cereal grains, esp wheat. A gluten-free diet is necessary in cases of coeliac disease
References in periodicals archive ?
We must invest in production technologies to increase efficiency and cost-effectiveness to compete with other producers within East Africa region and be competitive on the global market, said Mr Kitetu.Dr Moses Siambi, the Regional Director at Icrisat in-charge of Eastern and Southern Africa, said the ndengu glut was normal and that stakeholders should work together to provide solutions to farmers.
Ando, "Marginal cells of the stria vascularis of erbils take up glucose via the facilitated transporter GLUT: application of autofluorescence," Hearing Research, vol.
Importantly, these GLUT inhibitors were well tolerated and reduced inflammation in mouse models at therapeutically relevant doses.
Analysts said energy advisory group the IEA forecast that the stubborn oil glut will "shrink dramatically" this year, following wildfires that have disrupted Canada's output and on buoyant Indian demand.
Hence, the EIA data suggest that, over the quarter, the glut grew by a bit more than 700,000 barrels per day.
The global crude oil glut during the week had the strongest effects on sales to both sides of Suez, including the Asian/Pacific basin where demand was slower in recent weeks because of the economic slow-down in China, India and other major eastern markets.
With America and Europe no longer attractive destinations, the global glut went looking for new bubbles to inflate.
Oil is failing to sustain a recovery this year amid speculation the glut that drove prices almost 50 per cent lower in 2014 will persist.
The very next week, The New York Times warned that the "glut" was misleading and that in reality, temporary surpluses brought the prices down.
A place of plenty The founders of the business gave the cooperative the name "Glut" to signify that "here at this location there is a glut of food.
Investors are said to be worried that a combination of a global supply glut and weak demand could make prices fall further.
Brent oil fell to under $57 per barrel as persistent worries about a global supply glut offset concerns about output disruptions in Libya, Irish Times reported.