glutamine


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glutamine

(glo͞o`təmēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acidsamino acid
, any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins.
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 commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian protein. Its structure is identical to that of glutamic acidglutamic acid
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian proteins.
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, except that the acidic side-chain carboxyl group of glutamine has been coupled with ammonia, yielding an amide. The glutamic acid-glutamine interconversion is of central importance to the regulation of the levels of toxic ammonia in the body, and it is thus not surprising that when the concentrations of the amino acids of blood plasma are measured, glutamine is found to have the highest of all. Glutamine can donate the ammonia on its side chain to the formation of ureaurea
, organic compound that is the principal end product of nitrogen metabolism in most mammals. Urea was the first animal metabolite to be isolated in crystalline form; its crystallization was described in the early 18th cent.
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 (for eventual excretion by the kidneys) and to purinespurine,
type of organic base found in the nucleotides and nucleic acids of plant and animal tissue. The German chemist Emil Fischer did much of the basic work on purines and introduced the term into the chemical literature in the early 20th cent.
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 (necessary for the synthesis of genetic material). Once glutamine is incorporated into proteins, its relatively unreactive side-chain amide participates in very few reactions. Glutamine is not essential to the human diet, since it can be synthesized in the body from glutamic acid. Glutamine was isolated from beet juice in 1883, but was not isolated from a protein until 1932; it was chemically synthesized in 1933.
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glutamine

[′glüd·ə‚mēn]
(biochemistry)
C5H10O3N2 An amino acid; the monamide of glutamic acid; found in the juice of many plants and essential to the development of certain bacteria.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Effect of strengh training session on plasma amino acid concentration following oral ingestion of leucine, BCAAs or glutamine in men.
Influence of dietary glutamine supplementation on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, immune response and some blood parameters of broiler chickens.
In addition to standard chow food, group A received 7 days of glutamine 1.44 g/kg/day, arginine 1.44 g/kg/day and HMB 2.6 g/kg/day (Abound Abbott Nutrition, Access Business Group, 19600 6th Street, Lakeview, CA92567-8403, USA) mixed in still tap water and continued at the same dose for 7 more days after the operation until sacrificed.
Glial cells throughout the body, especially in muscles that are starved of glucose (hypoglycaemia) will die, spilling out their carefully guarded reserves of glutamine and the enzyme glutaminase --a deadly duo that becomes glutamate and joins up with calcium, its excitable partner.
The difference of changes of amino acid concentrations was 4.48, 18.20, 47.77, 8.52, and 13.74 ug/L for methionine, asparagine, glutamine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, respectively.
For the study, glutamine (Cayman Chemical, Michigan, USA) (4 mmol/L) was added to the plate of confluent MLE-12 cells 60 min before cyclic stretching.[10],[11]
Interestingly, the highest protein concentrations were observed in the treatments with the lowest concentrations of glutamine. In fact, Zouine and El-Hadrami (2007) observed that the exogenous application of glutamine led to an increase in the protein synthesis in Phoenix dactylifera L embryogenic cells.
In addition to its effects on exercise, glutamine contributes to a number of key functions, including support for the immune system and prevention of infections and improved gut barrier function.
Glutamic acid is a negatively charged amino acid whereas glutamine is neutral.
In addition, as you might expect, very little glutamine is used by the kidneys to generate bicarbonate buffers in a healthy state.
Here, we sought to investigate if cerebral glutamate and glutamine metabolism is altered in the db/db mouse.

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