gluten


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Related to gluten: celiac disease, Gluten free diet

gluten,

mixture of proteinsprotein,
any of the group of highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant class of all biological molecules. Protein comprises approximately 50% of cellular dry weight.
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 present in the cereal grains. The long molecules of gluten, insoluble in water, are strong and flexible and form many cross linkages. This gives flour its characteristic chewiness and permits breads and cakes to rise during baking as the gases within expand and are trapped in the gluten superstructure. Various flours have different ratios of gluten to starch (called hardness) and are appropriate for different types of foodstuffs. Thus soft flour is used for cakes, harder flour for pastry, hard flour for bread, and the hardest, or durum, for pasta. The hereditary disease called nontropical spruesprue,
chronic disorder of the small intestine caused by impaired absorption of fat and other nutrients. Two forms of the disease exist.

Tropical sprue occurs in central and northern South America, Asia, Africa, and other specific locations.
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 is characterized by an inability to digest gluten. In this disease the gluten acts as an antigen (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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) and forms immune complexes that cause damage to the mucus lining of the intestine.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

gluten

[′glüt·ən]
(biochemistry)
A mixture of proteins found in the seeds of cereals; gives dough elasticity and cohesiveness.
An albuminous element of animal tissue.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

gluten

a protein consisting of a mixture of glutelin and gliadin, present in cereal grains, esp wheat. A gluten-free diet is necessary in cases of coeliac disease
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Parents should reduce children's consumption of gluten to prevent celiac disease, according to Carin Andren Aronsson, study author from the Unit for Diabetes & Celiac Disease at Lund University in Sweden.
Other medical experts say that gluten may not be to blame for sensitivity, which may be a result of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates, like grains, beans, dairy and some fruits.
Appelee aussi maladie coeliaque, l'intolerance au gluten est une maladie auto-immune, c'est-a-dire que suite au contact avec le gluten, le corps va fabriquer des anticorps qui vont detruire la paroi de son propre intestin et donc etre responsable d'un defaut d'absorption des aliments.
Papantoniou carry the Pascual gluten-free range (including, according to the knowledgeable mums at the 'Gluten Free Paphos' Facebook page, chocolate pud -- yum!) and that of Seitz in addition to Sainsbury's gluten-free pastas, to be followed by their gluten-free oats in May and more 'Free From' products expected to follow.
Gluten-free pasta samples were positive in 51 per cent of tests; gluten-free pizza contained gluten for 53 per cent.
"If you tolerate gluten and wheat without any issues, you do not need to follow a gluten-free diet," says Rosenfeld.
Gluten is not found in meat, fish, poultry, dairy, fruits or vegetables.
After avoiding gluten and then ingesting it by accident, the effects are debilitating, lasting up to a week.
But ask these good-intentioned souls about what gluten is, and many of them may find it difficult to explain what it really is.
"These findings are exciting because it might mean that a relatively simple change in diet could help alleviate painful symptoms tied to gluten neuropathy," Zis said in a statement.
Technology company Glutenostics LLC reported on Friday the availability of the first home product line, Gluten Detective, to monitor gluten-free diet (GFD) in the the gluten-free community.
The increased availability of GF foods can be helpful for people who have celiac disease, a condition in which the body cannot digest gluten and reacts to gluten as a harmful invader.