gluten

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Related to gluten-free diet: celiac disease

gluten,

mixture of proteinsprotein,
any of the group of highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant class of all biological molecules. Protein comprises approximately 50% of cellular dry weight.
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 present in the cereal grains. The long molecules of gluten, insoluble in water, are strong and flexible and form many cross linkages. This gives flour its characteristic chewiness and permits breads and cakes to rise during baking as the gases within expand and are trapped in the gluten superstructure. Various flours have different ratios of gluten to starch (called hardness) and are appropriate for different types of foodstuffs. Thus soft flour is used for cakes, harder flour for pastry, hard flour for bread, and the hardest, or durum, for pasta. The hereditary disease called nontropical spruesprue,
chronic disorder of the small intestine caused by impaired absorption of fat and other nutrients. Two forms of the disease exist.

Tropical sprue occurs in central and northern South America, Asia, Africa, and other specific locations.
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 is characterized by an inability to digest gluten. In this disease the gluten acts as an antigen (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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) and forms immune complexes that cause damage to the mucus lining of the intestine.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

gluten

[′glüt·ən]
(biochemistry)
A mixture of proteins found in the seeds of cereals; gives dough elasticity and cohesiveness.
An albuminous element of animal tissue.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

gluten

a protein consisting of a mixture of glutelin and gliadin, present in cereal grains, esp wheat. A gluten-free diet is necessary in cases of coeliac disease
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Those diagnosed with a gluten-related disorder have to be on a lifelong strict gluten-free diet as the introduction of gluten has significant detrimental effects on their health.
The popular press credits gluten-free diets with preventing a variety of health problems caused by intolerance to gluten, including significant negative effects on cognition and mood.
True refractory celiac disease involves symptomatic malabsorption, severe enteropathy, and a primary or secondary nonresponse to a gluten-free diet. "By definition, there should be no lymphoma," said Dr.
(3) those on gluten-free diet for more than 6 months.
Those following gluten-free diets don't have to miss out on great tasting local ales either.
Symptoms of celiac disease typically include diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating--signs that lead many to self-diagnose the condition and begin a gluten-free diet, states clinical dietitian Katherine Patton, RD, CSSD, LD.
My digestion is perfect." Then you put them on a gluten-free diet, and when you see them a year later they say, "My bowel habit is much better than it was." You say, "Huh?
Every day brings more pop culture news about the gluten-free diet fad.
Finally, out of desperation, we decided to try him on a gluten-free diet. Because I was nursing, I went gluten-free as well.