This occurs in part as a result of poor movement of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the cell membrane, leading to insulin resistance, along with low muscle glycogen synthetase
activity, leading to poor glycogen storage, in a counter-regulatory hormonal environment that enhances muscle protein degradation due to glucoeneogenesis.
from rat liver: (glucose) n + (UDPG)->(Glucose)n + l +UDP.
The control of glycogen metabolism by the enzymes phosphorylase and glycogen synthetase
is effected in animal tissues mainly through the inter conversions of the active and inactive forms of these enzymes.
Fructose 1,6-diphosphate, phosphofructokinase, glycogen synthetase
, phosphorylase, and proteinkinase from swine kidney.
from rat liver: (Glucose)n +(UDPG) [right arrow] or [vector] (Glucose)n + 1 + UDP.
2002) or oxidative stress by diabetes may inactivate the glycogen synthetase
In the diabetic rats, high glucose levels and a decrease in hepatic glycogen contents could be attributed to less availability of the active form of the enzyme glycogen synthetase
(Bollen and Stalmans 1984).