glycol


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glycol

glycol (glīˈkōl), dihydric alcohol in which the two hydroxyl groups are bonded to different carbon atoms; the general formula for a glycol is (CH2)n(OH)2. The most important glycol is the simplest, ethylene glycol, or 1,2-ethanediol, CH2OHCH2OH, a slightly sweet-tasting, somewhat viscous liquid that is miscible with water. Because of its low volatility (b.p. 197℃) and low corrosive activity, it is widely used in mixtures of automobile antifreeze. Ethylene glycol can be esterified to form polyesters, e.g., Dacron, and can be nitrated to form an explosive used in mining. It is prepared commercially by oxidation of ethylene at high temperature over a silver oxide catalyst, followed by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the ethylene oxide that is formed.

Cellosolves (e.g., methyl cellosolve, CH3OCH2CH2OH) are monoether derivatives of ethylene glycol. They are excellent solvents, having solvent properties of both ethers and alcohols; they have other uses as well. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to thicken shampoo and cosmetics. It can also be attached to other molecules via a process called pegylation. When pegylated to medicinal drugs, it can alter their distribution in the body, metabolism, and excretion. Such alteration can lead to improved dosing intervals and may also have beneficial effects on safety and efficacy. Pegylation can also mask certain drugs, such as interferon, from the immune system, preventing their rejection.

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glycol

[′glī‚kȯl]
(organic chemistry)
Cn H2 n (OH)2 An organic chemical with two hydroxyl groups on an essentially aliphatic carbon chain. Also known as dihydroxy alcohol.
HOCH2CH2OH A colorless dihydroxy alcohol used as an antifreeze, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of dynamites and resins. Also known as ethlene glycol.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
With a low degree of toxicity and a metabolic pathway similar to that of sugar, there are currently no official hazard classifications for propylene glycol USP/EP, and it has been approved for pharmaceutical use as listed in most global Pharmacopeia.
The CASTion system is expected to help Contego eliminate glycol disposal costs, recover and recycle the value of the glycol in the wastewater fluids collected and lower the overall carbon footprint of its deicing operations.
Clinicians would prescribe polyethylene glycol to your child to treat impaction and constipation that is not related to a serious illness (i.e.
Annual ethylene glycol capacity at Yansab is 770,000 tonnes.
An interesting fact is that ethylene glycol and methanol are not very toxic before being metabolized.
A secondary loop refrigeration system uses glycol as a secondary fluid to cool the supermarket refrigerated spaces that may come in contact with food.
* ZF-22, 70% bis-(2-dimethylaminoethyl) ether diluted in dipropylene glycol, used in flexible polyether slabstock foams and flexible molded foams.
According to Suppes, the new propylene glycol product, made from domestic soybeans, presents an alternative to the use of toxic, petroleum-based ethylene glycol.
Some water-based inks used in package printing contain glycol ethers and considerable levels of residual monomers.
Company officials say propylene glycol can cause skin irritation.