glycol


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glycol

(glī`kōl), dihydric alcoholalcohol,
any of a class of organic compounds with the general formula R-OH, where R represents an alkyl group made up of carbon and hydrogen in various proportions and -OH represents one or more hydroxyl groups.
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 in which the two hydroxyl groups are bonded to different carbon atoms; the general formula for a glycol is (CH2)n(OH)2. The most important glycol is the simplest, ethylene glycol, or 1,2-ethanediol, CH2OHCH2OH, a slightly sweet-tasting, somewhat viscous liquid that is miscible with water. Because of its low volatility (b.p. 197°C;) and low corrosive activity, it is widely used in mixtures of automobile antifreezeantifreeze,
substance added to a solvent to lower its freezing point. The solution formed is called an antifreeze mixture. Antifreeze is typically added to water in the cooling system of an internal-combustion engine so that it may be cooled below the freezing point of pure
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. Ethylene glycol can be esterified to form polyesters, e.g., DacronDacron
, trademark for a polyester fiber. Dacron is a condensation polymer obtained from ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. Its properties include high tensile strength, high resistance to stretching, both wet and dry, and good resistance to degradation by chemical bleaches
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, and can be nitrated to form an explosive used in mining. It is prepared commercially by oxidation of ethylene at high temperature over a silver oxide catalyst, followed by acid-catalyzed hydrolysishydrolysis
, chemical reaction of a compound with water, usually resulting in the formation of one or more new compounds. The most common hydrolysis occurs when a salt of a weak acid or weak base (or both) is dissolved in water.
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 of the ethylene oxide that is formed.

Cellosolves (e.g., methyl cellosolve, CH3OCH2CH2OH) are monoether derivatives of ethylene glycol. They are excellent solvents, having solvent properties of both ethers and alcohols; they have other uses as well. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to thicken shampoo and cosmetics. It can also be attached to other molecules via a process called pegylation. When pegylated to medicinal drugs, it can alter their distribution in the body, metabolism, and excretion. Such alteration can lead to improved dosing intervals and may also have beneficial effects on safety and efficacy. Pegylation can also mask certain drugs, such as interferon, from the immune system, preventing their rejection.

glycol

[′glī‚kȯl]
(organic chemistry)
Cn H2 n (OH)2 An organic chemical with two hydroxyl groups on an essentially aliphatic carbon chain. Also known as dihydroxy alcohol.
HOCH2CH2OH A colorless dihydroxy alcohol used as an antifreeze, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of dynamites and resins. Also known as ethlene glycol.
References in periodicals archive ?
With a low degree of toxicity and a metabolic pathway similar to that of sugar, there are currently no official hazard classifications for propylene glycol USP/EP, and it has been approved for pharmaceutical use as listed in most global Pharmacopeia.
The CASTion system is expected to help Contego eliminate glycol disposal costs, recover and recycle the value of the glycol in the wastewater fluids collected and lower the overall carbon footprint of its deicing operations.
Clinicians would prescribe polyethylene glycol to your child to treat impaction and constipation that is not related to a serious illness (i.e.
Annual ethylene glycol capacity at Yansab is 770,000 tonnes.
An interesting fact is that ethylene glycol and methanol are not very toxic before being metabolized.
A secondary loop refrigeration system uses glycol as a secondary fluid to cool the supermarket refrigerated spaces that may come in contact with food.
* ZF-22, 70% bis-(2-dimethylaminoethyl) ether diluted in dipropylene glycol, used in flexible polyether slabstock foams and flexible molded foams.
According to Suppes, the new propylene glycol product, made from domestic soybeans, presents an alternative to the use of toxic, petroleum-based ethylene glycol.
Some water-based inks used in package printing contain glycol ethers and considerable levels of residual monomers.
Company officials say propylene glycol can cause skin irritation.