Gnotobiotics

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Gnotobiotics

The science involved with maintaining a microbiologically controlled environment, and with the knowledge necessary to obtain and use biological specimens in this environment. The roots of the word are gnotos, meaning well known, and biota, the combined flora and fauna of a region.

All exposed surfaces of an animal are teeming with microbes. For example, the contents of the large intestine may contain 3 trillion microbes per ounce (100 billion per gram), belonging to several hundred species. Even if the animal itself is the primary interest of a researcher, there is no direct way to determine how many of an animal's normal characteristics are truly its own, and how many involve interaction with or reaction against resident microbiota. The only way to determine this is comparison with animals that have no microbiota. If differences are found, then the role of individual microbial species can be studied by inoculating pure cultures of these species into the animals without a microbiota.

Thus, gnotobiotics evolved initially to answer questions about what difference the resident microbiota makes, and which members of the microbiota make the difference. Answers become more and more essential in going beyond the effects of pathogenic microbes to the harmful or helpful long-term effects of environmental chemicals, compounds produced in the host's own metabolism, and therapeutic drugs being tested for efficacy, toxicity, or carcinogenicity. The activity of the microbiota is proportionately much greater in laboratory animals than it is in humans, and could have a decisive effect on such chemicals, especially since the chemicals are often received in small doses. For example, intestinal microbes turn a minor component of the cycad bean, a South Pacific foodstuff, into a carcinogen. One of the best drugs against parasitic schistosomes in humans is turned into a carcinogen by a single species of intestinal streptococcus. Gnotobiotic studies are designed to detect such possibilities.

Gnotobiote is the term applied to an animal (or plant) with a defined microbiota. The most simple of gnotobiotes is the animal with no microbiota. Invertebrate animals of this type are most frequently called axenic. Vertebrate animals may also be called axenic, but are more frequently called germfree. Gnotobiology is a term sometimes used to designate studies involving gnotobiotes, although it tends to suggest that there is a unified body of knowledge which results from studying gnotobiotes. In fact, the gnotobiote is a more precisely defined laboratory animal which helps elucidate biological phenomena in immunology, nutrition, physiology, oncology, gastroenterology, microbial ecology, gerontology, pathogenic microbiology, parasitology, and so on.

Gnotobiotics

 

gnotobiology, a branch of experimental biology that includes the production and raising of laboratory animals whose bodies are free either of all microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, protozoans) and helminths and arthropods (so-called sterile animals) or merely of certain pathogenic species of them (so-called gnotobiotic animals). Gnotobiotics arose with the requirements of morphology, physiology, genetics, microbiology, medicine, veterinary medicine, and other sciences.

gnotobiotics

[‚nōd·ə·bī′äd·iks]
(microbiology)
The science involved with maintaining a microbiologically controlled environment, and with the knowledge necessary to obtain and use biological specimens in this environment.
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References in periodicals archive ?
To this end, several kinds of gnotobiotic mice were prepared by treating GF mice with the following isolated strains: Escherichia coli, Proteus sp.
The role of gut microbiota (commensal bacteria) and the mucosal barrier in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and cancer: contribution of germ-free and gnotobiotic animal models of human diseases.
Colonization of Lactobacillus acidophilus in gnotobiotic chicks.
Table 3: Plant growth promotion of wheat seedlings under drought (No PEG, 15 and 25% PEG) when inoculated with Rhizobium phaseoli isolated from mung bean nodules in gnotobiotic conditions
On the other hand, gnotobiotic mice contain defined intestinal microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract and are an attractive model system to study the impact of resident intestinal microbiota on the process of infection [93].
Cariogenicity of a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of Streptococcus mutans serotype c in gnotobiotic rats.
In one study (33), gnotobiotic mice had increased quantities of phosphocholine and glycine in the liver and increased quantities of bile acids in the intestine.
2006, Short-chain fatty acids protect gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio campbellii.
Ideally the host would be optically transparent, small enough for its entire digestive tract to be visualized, and amenable to microbiological manipulations, such as the ability to generate gnotobiotic animals with defined microbial associations.