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see thyroid glandthyroid gland,
endocrine gland, situated in the neck, that secretes hormones necessary for growth and proper metabolism. It consists of two lobes connected by a narrow segment called the isthmus. The lobes lie on either side of the trachea, the isthmus in front of it.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in man, enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by the proliferation of its functional lymphoid tissue (parenchyma) or of its connective-tissue stroma. The proliferation of thyroid epithelium may embrace the entire thyroid parenchyma (diffuse goiter), or it may originate in a particular portion of the parenchyma (nodular goiter). Slight enlargement of the gland may occur in puberty or during menstruation, pregnancy, and lactation. Goiter may be associated with a number of conditions—diffuse toxic goiter, thyroiditis, thyroid tumor, and sporadic and endemic goiter.

A goiter may be unilateral or bilateral. Most often it is found in the neck; sometimes it is located behind the sternum (substernal goiter). A goiter usually alters the contours of the neck; although with substernal and deep-lying goiters the contours of the neck may remain normal. A goiter results in malfunction of the thyroid gland, but in the euthyroid form there need not be any functional impairment. Sporadic goiter is found in a number of localities and is caused by an endogenous (depending on internal factors) iodine deficiency in the body. Endemic goiter is found in certain biogeochemical areas where there is an insufficiency of iodine in the air, water, soil, and food products (instead of 200–220 μg, 20–80 μg of iodine or less enters the human body). Insufficiency of iodine in the environment may be aggravated by unfavorable exogenous (social, everyday, and sanitary-hygienic conditions) or endogenous (pregnancy, lactation, hypovitaminoses, helminthiases) factors. Iodine deficiency may result from infectious diseases or intoxications. A relative deficiency may occur when the ratio of iodine to certain chemical compounds (calcium, fluorine, and so forth) in the body is upset. Endemic goiter is found in almost every country, especially in mountainous regions, valleys, foothills, and watersheds and in swampy, sandy, and peaty regions. It is almost never found in chernozem zones.

Goiter prevention includes correcting unhealthy conditions in the throat and mouth, vermifuge treatment, and improvement of the conditions of sanitation and hygiene of daily life (keeping dwellings clean, maintaining the water supply properly, sound nutrition); individual and group iodine prophylaxis (iodized table salt); and early detection and dispensary observation of goiter patients. Treatment, depending on the form and symptoms of goiter, includes iodine preparations, thyroidin, triiodothyronine, and diiodothyrosine. Surgery is indicated for nodular and mixed goiter; it is also recommended for diffuse goiter if more conservative treatment proves ineffective.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


An enlargement of all or part of the thyroid gland; may be accompanied by a hormonal dysfunction.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


(US), goiter
Pathol a swelling of the thyroid gland, in some cases nearly doubling the size of the neck, usually caused by under- or overproduction of hormone by the gland
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Goiter affects only five percent of the world's population, but among Filipinos, the 2007 figures released by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) showed that close to eight percent have goiters, with the highest prevalence rate occurring in Bicol (12 percent), Eastern Visayas (11.4 percent), Metro Manila (9.7 percent), and Cagayan Valley (8.5 percent).
Large goiter with or without symptoms of compression.
According to Mayo clinic, goiter is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland.
The concept of "goiter" originating from the Latin word "tumidum gutter" means that thyroid gland grows up to twice its size, or it is heavier than 40 grams.1 Goiter is a thyroid gland disease that affects about 5% of the world.2 An enlarged thyroid gland most often causes subclinical hypothyroidism.
Thus, routine dissection of pretracheal area and seeing thymus in the thoracic inlet should be a part of every total thyroidectomy that is performed due to nodular goiter. The remnants that underwent nodular change can be frequently palpated during surgery.
(20) reported a low rate (0.6%) of extra-cervical approach in 355 patients treated surgically for RSG and identified the primary intrathoracic goiter or recurrent carcinoma as case-specific factors requiring an extra-cervical approach.
Tomita, "Upper airway obstruction from a benign goiter," Surgery Today, vol.
A 28-year-old primigravida, without personal thyroid and autoimmune pathology or relevant family history (no consanguinity and unknown endocrine diseases in relatives), underwent prenatal ultrasonography (US) at 29 weeks' gestation, which revealed a high vascularized, bilobed, and symmetric mass in the anterior region of fetal neck (35 mm of largest diameter), suggesting fetal goiter (see Figures 1(a) and 1(b)).
We studied the effect of prior surgery and recurrent goiter on the surgical anatomy of the thyroid gland and especially on the cervical course of the RLN in patients with redo thyroid surgery.
Canfora et al., "Bilateral benign multinodular goiter: what is the adequate surgical therapy?