goiter

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goiter:

see thyroid glandthyroid gland,
endocrine gland, situated in the neck, that secretes hormones necessary for growth and proper metabolism. It consists of two lobes connected by a narrow segment called the isthmus. The lobes lie on either side of the trachea, the isthmus in front of it.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Goiter

 

in man, enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by the proliferation of its functional lymphoid tissue (parenchyma) or of its connective-tissue stroma. The proliferation of thyroid epithelium may embrace the entire thyroid parenchyma (diffuse goiter), or it may originate in a particular portion of the parenchyma (nodular goiter). Slight enlargement of the gland may occur in puberty or during menstruation, pregnancy, and lactation. Goiter may be associated with a number of conditions—diffuse toxic goiter, thyroiditis, thyroid tumor, and sporadic and endemic goiter.

A goiter may be unilateral or bilateral. Most often it is found in the neck; sometimes it is located behind the sternum (substernal goiter). A goiter usually alters the contours of the neck; although with substernal and deep-lying goiters the contours of the neck may remain normal. A goiter results in malfunction of the thyroid gland, but in the euthyroid form there need not be any functional impairment. Sporadic goiter is found in a number of localities and is caused by an endogenous (depending on internal factors) iodine deficiency in the body. Endemic goiter is found in certain biogeochemical areas where there is an insufficiency of iodine in the air, water, soil, and food products (instead of 200–220 μg, 20–80 μg of iodine or less enters the human body). Insufficiency of iodine in the environment may be aggravated by unfavorable exogenous (social, everyday, and sanitary-hygienic conditions) or endogenous (pregnancy, lactation, hypovitaminoses, helminthiases) factors. Iodine deficiency may result from infectious diseases or intoxications. A relative deficiency may occur when the ratio of iodine to certain chemical compounds (calcium, fluorine, and so forth) in the body is upset. Endemic goiter is found in almost every country, especially in mountainous regions, valleys, foothills, and watersheds and in swampy, sandy, and peaty regions. It is almost never found in chernozem zones.

Goiter prevention includes correcting unhealthy conditions in the throat and mouth, vermifuge treatment, and improvement of the conditions of sanitation and hygiene of daily life (keeping dwellings clean, maintaining the water supply properly, sound nutrition); individual and group iodine prophylaxis (iodized table salt); and early detection and dispensary observation of goiter patients. Treatment, depending on the form and symptoms of goiter, includes iodine preparations, thyroidin, triiodothyronine, and diiodothyrosine. Surgery is indicated for nodular and mixed goiter; it is also recommended for diffuse goiter if more conservative treatment proves ineffective.

L. M. GOL’BER

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

goiter

[′gȯid·ər]
(medicine)
An enlargement of all or part of the thyroid gland; may be accompanied by a hormonal dysfunction.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

goitre

(US), goiter
Pathol a swelling of the thyroid gland, in some cases nearly doubling the size of the neck, usually caused by under- or overproduction of hormone by the gland
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Several authors have assessed thyroid function status in goitrous children from both endemic and iodine supplemented regions and found the prevalence of hypothyroidism (subclinical and overt) ranging from 0-40 per cent (26,27).
Compound heterozygous mutations in the thyroglobulin gene (1143deIC and 6725G[right arrow]A[R2223H]) resulting in fetal goitrous hypothyroidism.
The most common single pathological diagnosis in our study was found to be Goitrous lesion of thyroid, most likely attributed to the endemicity of fluorosis in the catchment area of the hospital.
Thyroperoxidase gene mutations in congenital goitrous hypothyroidism with total and partial iodide organification defect.
Goitrous lesions of thyroid showed a female preponderance (8.5: 1).
He had initially presented with delayed bone growth and muscular hypotonia at 4 months of age and was diagnosed to have congenital goitrous hypothyroidism.
(41) "I have observed goitrous patients who have been greatly affected by the treatment: acceleration of the pulse, palpitations, dry frequent cough, insomnia, rapid emaciation, loss of strength, in others only swelling of the legs or tremor of a painful hardening of the goiter, sometimes a shrinkage of the breast, remarkable and sustained increase in appetite." He was the first physician to use iodine in medical practice.
The handling of moderately excessive iodide loads by normal and goitrous human thyroid glands.
"Thyroid cancer and thyroiditis in the goitrous region of Salta, Argentina, before and after iodine prophylaxis." Clin Endocrinol, 1995;43:701-706.
(4) This incidence is even significantly higher in endemic goitrous regions.