female terminalia (paratype); A) dorsal view of segment IX, anal tube and paraproct; B) lateral view of anal tube and paraproct; C) ventral view of gonapophyses IX and gonospiculum bridge; D) right lateral view of gonapophyses IX and gonospiculum bridge; E) right lateral view of gonapophysis
VIII (distal portion upward).
The dorsal and ventral valvulae or gonapophyses collectively form the egg canal with the help of two functional units called olistheters and two thin longitudinal septa, one from each of the ventral valvulae or gonapophysis
for the transport of eggs (Fig.
Parabacillus is characterized by the strongly shortened antennae of both sexes, which consist of only six or seven segments, by the lack of a galea lobulus and complete reduction of gonapophysis
VIII and gonoplacs (Bradler 2009).
Dorsal labiate plate short, only slightly produced anterior of recurved region of first gonapophysis
in dorsal view; sclerotized rings adhered to dorsolateral surface, crescent-shaped with anterior margin open (Fig.
The anterior arm of gonapophysis
1 is longest and smoothly curved anteroventrally; the anterior arm of gonapophysis
2 is shorter and projected more ventrally; gonapophysis
3 is L-shaped, the anterior arm nearly horizontal.
In the family Helotrephidae, the sister family to Pleidae, Papacek (2002, 2008) showed that the 1st gonapophysis
is taxonomically informative at the genus level.
1); medial margin of first gonapophysis
nearly symmetrical (Fig.
Gonactinost six and seven are inserted between gonapophysis
one and two, while gonactinosts eight and nine are inserted between gonapophysis
two and three.
Female: 8, genitalia, ventral view; 9, median gonapophysis
IX, lateral view; 10, right valvifer VIII (scale lines figs.