female terminalia (paratype); A) dorsal view of segment IX, anal tube and paraproct; B) lateral view of anal tube and paraproct; C) ventral view of gonapophyses IX and gonospiculum bridge; D) right lateral view of gonapophyses IX and gonospiculum bridge; E) right lateral view of gonapophysis
VIII (distal portion upward).
Body coloration pattern and structure similar to male; ovipositor brown, valvifer VIII and apex of gonapophysis VIII yellowish.
Megamelus nigrifasciatus can be easily distinguished from the remaining South American species by the following combination of characters: head coloration pattern with dark and whitish stripes; aedeagus long and curved, anal segment with slender, long and symmetrical processes in male; stronger and acute teeth on the gonapophysis IX in female.
The dorsal and ventral valvulae or gonapophyses collectively form the egg canal with the help of two functional units called olistheters and two thin longitudinal septa, one from each of the ventral valvulae or gonapophysis
for the transport of eggs (Fig.
Parabacillus is characterized by the strongly shortened antennae of both sexes, which consist of only six or seven segments, by the lack of a galea lobulus and complete reduction of gonapophysis
VIII and gonoplacs (Bradler 2009).
Dorsal labiate plate short, only slightly produced anterior of recurved region of first gonapophysis
in dorsal view; sclerotized rings adhered to dorsolateral surface, crescent-shaped with anterior margin open (Fig.
The anterior arm of gonapophysis
1 is longest and smoothly curved anteroventrally; the anterior arm of gonapophysis
2 is shorter and projected more ventrally; gonapophysis
3 is L-shaped, the anterior arm nearly horizontal.
In the family Helotrephidae, the sister family to Pleidae, Papacek (2002, 2008) showed that the 1st gonapophysis
is taxonomically informative at the genus level.
1); medial margin of first gonapophysis
nearly symmetrical (Fig.
The female imago of Oliveiriella almeidai does not offer great differences with the genus Cricotopus and shares with the latter gonapophysis
VIM divided into large and rounded ventrolateral lobe that covers and contacts the dorsomesal lobe; tergite IX divided; segment X faintly; post-genital plate well developed and triangular-shaped.
Gonactinost six and seven are inserted between gonapophysis
one and two, while gonactinosts eight and nine are inserted between gonapophysis
two and three.
Female: 8, genitalia, ventral view; 9, median gonapophysis
IX, lateral view; 10, right valvifer VIII (scale lines figs.