: new treatment for healing acute and chronic anal fissures.
The LC-FLD results also enabled the assessment of toxin profiles in each of the snail samples, with data confirming the dominance of saxitoxin (STX) in the majority of snails in comparison with the dominant gonyautoxins quantified in the mussel food source.
Certified reference materials used were decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), saxitoxin dihydrochloride (STX di-HCl), gonyautoxins 1-5 (GTX1-5), N-sulfocarbamoylgonyautoxin-2 and -3 (C1&2), decarbamoylneosaxitoxin (dcNEO), and decarbamoylgonyautoxin-2 and -3 (dcGTX2&3).
Fraction F1, contained the C toxins (C1&2 and C3&4), fraction F2 contained the gonyautoxins GTX1-6 and dcGTX2&3, and fraction F3 contained STX, dcSTX, dcNEO, and NEO.
Using the techniques listed earlier, further research revealed that PSP poison found in shellfish consists not only of saxitoxin and neosaxitoxin but also a suite of closely related toxins that are commonly referred to as "gonyautoxins
" (named after the original genus of the dinoflagellate that produces the toxins).
Toxins identified included the N-hydroxylated toxins GTX1&4, NEO, and dcNEO, the decarbamoyl toxins dcGTX2&3 and dcSTX together with the remaining carbamates and gonyautoxins STX.
Gonyautoxins 1 and 4 was found to be present at the highest concentrations in terms of STX eq., but with significant contributions from GTX2&3, dcSTX, and dcGTX2&3.
Gonyautoxins 1 and 4 was present at the highest relative concentration of all the PST, with other major toxins including GTX2&3, dcGTX2&3, and dcSTX.
The samples containing high proportions of carbamate and gonyautoxins, most notably GTX1&4, STX, and GTX2&3 are those associated with A.
Although rapa whelks can bioaccumulate paralytic shellfish poisons including gonyautoxins
and saxitoxins through consumption of contaminated bivalves (Ito et al.