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Economics a commodity or service that satisfies a human need
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in ethics and philosophy, that which includes definite positive meaning. In philosophy the question of good was posed in attempts to explain the meaning of existence and human life and was treated as the problem of the greatest good (summum bonum in Latin, a term introduced by Aristotle); this greatest good determined the relative value of all other goods. The Greek philosophers viewed the greatest good as happiness— “eudaemonia” —the exact meaning of which was defined in various ways by representatives of different schools. For example, the Cyrenaics and Epicurus defined it as pleasure, the Cynics as abstention from passion, and Aristotle and the Stoics as virtue (in the sense of the supremacy of the higher and more rational forms of nature over the lower). Plato considered “the good” to be “the one” which is the basis of all existence. Aristotle distinguished three kinds of good: corporeal (health, strength), external (wealth, honor, glory), and spiritual (intelligence, moral virtue). In the Middle Ages, scholasticism attempted to rework the ideas of the ancient philosophers in terms of the principles of Christian theism. The result was the identification of the greatest good with god, the source of all good and the ultimate goal of human aspiration.

New European philosophy emphasized the role of the subject in determining any sort of good. T. Hobbes and B. Spinoza said that the good is that for which man is striving, that which he needs. Another development which was characteristic of new European ethics was the utilitarian interpretation of good, which reduces it to the idea of usefulness. Kant distinguished the supreme good from the absolute good. The former is good will and moral virtue; and latter requires that virtue be combined with happiness. Thereafter the concept of the good gradually lost its significance and, from the middle of the 19th century was replaced by the concept of value.

In the narrower and specifically ethical sense of the word, the concept of good is opposite to that of evil.


Material goods Economists consider material goods from two different points of view: in terms of their usefulness (their capacity for satisfying a particular human need) and in terms of how much man has contributed to their production. Accordingly, there are two kinds of value—use value and exchange value. Material goods are usually considered to include consumer goods (services as well as wares) which satisfy a great variety of human needs.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


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References in periodicals archive ?
Personal goodwill is more likely when the entity is providing the services of an individual and moreover when the entity's services are exclusively the provision of that individual's services.
On another scale, I venerate Bahia Hariri not as a goodwill ambassador but rather as a goodwill initiator in her many social and human deeds, particularly that of supporting Lebanese women to exert their innate power, even if discretely, knowing that they constitute the core engine for any social change.
The boutique will have a slightly different look and design from that of other Goodwill stores, she said.
Because it is more likely that personal goodwill exists in a closely held business and the effect of double taxation on corporate earnings is a concern for those businesses, identifying personal goodwill as a separate asset occurs most often with the sale of closely held C corporations and with closely held S corporations still within the Sec.
Gordon Comfort, CEO of Goodwill Industries of Columbia, came up with the idea at a strategy meeting, where officials looked for new ways to bring in items.
In addition, any corporate goodwill that Bross Trucking had previously owned was lost due to the negative attention from unsatisfactory safety ratings.
Now in its sixth year of publication, the 2014 study continues to examine general and industry goodwill impairment trends observed through December 2013, and reports the 2014 results of the annual goodwill impairment survey of FEI members.
The court was told how Goodwill drank nine litres of cider a day.
Today, four Goodwill Education employees are using Tableau Desktop to author dashboards, while approximately 200 employees view and interact with the published dashboards on Tableau Server.
"These donations will go directly back into the Worcester community where they can help others,'' said Jason Marshall, vice president of retail at Morgan Memorial Goodwill Industries.