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gouache(gwäsh): see watercolor paintingwatercolor painting,
in its wider sense, refers to all pigments mixed with water rather than with oil and also to the paintings produced by this process; it includes fresco and tempera as well as aquarelle, the process now commonly meant by the generic term.
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paints consisting of finely ground pigments mixed with a water-glue binder (gum arabic, wheat starch, dextrin, or a similar substance) and an admixture of white; also, a work of art painted with these colors.
Gouache is generally used for painting on paper, cardboard, plywood, canvas, silk, or bone. It came into use as a variety of watercolor (in combination with which it is often used), when artists added white paint to watercolor paints to achieve an opaque layer of paint. Gouache was widely used as early as the Middle Ages by artists of many European and Asian countries, mainly in book miniatures. During the Renaissance it was also used in sketches, cartoons, and the tinting of drawings, and later in portrait miniatures. In the 18th and early 19th century, some artists used gouache to paint miniatures (in Russia, F. P. Tolstoi). The beginning of factory production of special gouache paints in the mid-19th century helped to make gouache a technique apart from watercolor painting—distinguished from the latter by the denseness, lack of transparency, and opaqueness of its tones.
In Russia the gouache technique became highly developed in the late 19th and early 20th century in the work of V. A. Serov, A. Ia. Golovin. and S. V. Ivanov, who used it for large easel paintings, taking advantage of its opaqueness to achieve decorative effects. Today, gouache is used for posters, book and applied graphics, sketches of theater sets, and decorative designs.
REFERENCEKiplik, D. I. Tekhnika zhivopisi, 6th ed. Moscow-Leningrad. 1950.
A. S. ZAITSEV