Graininess


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graininess

[′grān·ē·nəs]
(graphic arts)
A mottled effect in film caused by clumping of the silver particles.

Graininess

 

the inhomogeneity of a uniformly exposed and developed photographic layer observed in an enlarged photographic image. At high magnification the form of the primary blackening structure (microgranular structure) may be seen; it consists of individual silver “grains” which are produced by the reducing action of the developer on the microscopic crystals of silver halide in the photographic material. The size of the grains is usually greater than the size of the silver halide crystals from which they are formed, reaching several microns (μ). The secondary blackening structure, which itself is called graininess (also macrograininess, granularity, or photographic noise), is observed at low magnifications (5–30 ×). It is produced by the superposition of the projections of individual silver grains located at different depths of the very thin (7–26 μ) developed layer, by the combined reduction of several randomly adhering microscopic crystals of silver halide, and sometimes by the accretion of silver grains in the process of their formation during developing.

Graininess lowers the quality of a photographic image by reducing the aesthetic impression of still pictures produced by printing from a small negative and in motion-picture images on a screen by making it more difficult (or even impossible) to recognize fine details in complicated pictures, particularly technical photographs, and by complicating the microphotometric processing of spectrograms, astronomical photographs, and other kinds of special photographic images. Graininess is primarily determined by the size of the microscopic silver halide crystals; it increases sharply with the degree of exposure and development of the layer. However, it usually is not highly dependent on the composition of the developer. Photographic images produced on low-sensitivity materials with the smallest possible exposures and a low degree of development are the least grainy.

IU. N. GOROKHOVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
A time scale T with sup T = [infinity] is called homogeneous if the graininess is constant.
In these conditions, however, anthocyanins are not readily preserved, so the chains continue to elongate, becoming increasingly insoluble and drawn to salivary protein, so that the textural impression after a few years migrates from the tip of the tongue to a general dirty graininess throughout the tongue and cheeks that we call tanin sec, or "dry" tannin, the only type of tannin to occur under the tongue in the back of the mouth.
If [mu] and v denote, respectively, the forward graininess and backward graininess associated to T, then we denote by [?
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She fed me tastes of Midnight Moon from California, cut from a firm wedge, "dense and smooth with the slight graininess of a long-aged cheese"; Morbier Mobay from Wisconsin, whose central vein separates a goat cheese and a sheep's milk cheese; and, my favorite, Red Cloud, a raw goat's milk cheese from Colorado, soft with a rinsed reddish rind and "a powerful flavor that is balanced and complex.
Grana refers to the graininess of the texture of the cheese's interior, while Padano invokes the verdant Po Valley.
Combine the remaining ingredients in a blender or food processor; puree until smooth without a trace of graininess, and serve with the salad.
For example, Montserrat Caballe's chest voice in a 1974 broadcast of I Vespri Siciliani "is pungent where needed and free of the ugly graininess that she sometimes has favored" (p.
Photos can often be refined and improved using Photoshop to address matters such as color fidelity, light-source problems, exposure errors, dust-speck removal, tonal range, color profile selection, saturation, sharpness, removal of graininess, and the manipulation of the background, among other things.
Rub a bit between your fingers to make sure there is no graininess.