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(graphic arts)
A mottled effect in film caused by clumping of the silver particles.



the inhomogeneity of a uniformly exposed and developed photographic layer observed in an enlarged photographic image. At high magnification the form of the primary blackening structure (microgranular structure) may be seen; it consists of individual silver “grains” which are produced by the reducing action of the developer on the microscopic crystals of silver halide in the photographic material. The size of the grains is usually greater than the size of the silver halide crystals from which they are formed, reaching several microns (μ). The secondary blackening structure, which itself is called graininess (also macrograininess, granularity, or photographic noise), is observed at low magnifications (5–30 ×). It is produced by the superposition of the projections of individual silver grains located at different depths of the very thin (7–26 μ) developed layer, by the combined reduction of several randomly adhering microscopic crystals of silver halide, and sometimes by the accretion of silver grains in the process of their formation during developing.

Graininess lowers the quality of a photographic image by reducing the aesthetic impression of still pictures produced by printing from a small negative and in motion-picture images on a screen by making it more difficult (or even impossible) to recognize fine details in complicated pictures, particularly technical photographs, and by complicating the microphotometric processing of spectrograms, astronomical photographs, and other kinds of special photographic images. Graininess is primarily determined by the size of the microscopic silver halide crystals; it increases sharply with the degree of exposure and development of the layer. However, it usually is not highly dependent on the composition of the developer. Photographic images produced on low-sensitivity materials with the smallest possible exposures and a low degree of development are the least grainy.


References in periodicals archive ?
A time scale T with sup T = [infinity] is called homogeneous if the graininess is constant.
If [mu] and v denote, respectively, the forward graininess and backward graininess associated to T, then we denote by [?
In practice, this means that the examination of structurally non-homogeneous materials includes reflections of ultrasonic three-dimensional structural interference, causing ultrasonic image graininess (Fig 6).
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Also launching with the device is Microsoft's ClearFrame Technology, which offers faster image processing technology to help deliver smooth video at any resolution and improved noise reduction technology to reduce image graininess.
However, the graininess of the solder balls may indicate the start of an oxidizing surface.
The graininess of the old home movies and photographs paired with the narrator's deep voice offers a brief nostalgic moment for some viewers reminiscent of the experience of watching fifth grade sex education movies.
This clear, easy-to-follow book shows amateur photographers how to simulate traditional darkroom techniques such as graininess, motion blurring, posterization, hand-tinting and filtering.
She fed me tastes of Midnight Moon from California, cut from a firm wedge, "dense and smooth with the slight graininess of a long-aged cheese"; Morbier Mobay from Wisconsin, whose central vein separates a goat cheese and a sheep's milk cheese; and, my favorite, Red Cloud, a raw goat's milk cheese from Colorado, soft with a rinsed reddish rind and "a powerful flavor that is balanced and complex.
It is quite another to do it on this scale with instrumental textures that are so clearly defined, liquid and free of graininess.