Extreme grazing through livestock during summer season might limit the accessibility of graminoid
plants for wild ungulates during summer season and thus direct to inter-specific competition (Shrestha, 2007; Reimers et al., 2005).
In total we identified 76 forb, 10 shrub, and 36 graminoid
species along transects (Tables A1, A2, and A3).
The study was conducted throughout a vegetation gradient formed by the phytophysiognomies: Graminoid
Field (GRF), Cerrado Sensu Stricto (CSS), Cerradao (CRD) and Seasonal Semideciduous Forest (SSF).
As forb, shrub, and graminoid
are the major forage resources for water deer (Kim et al.
comata as the principal graminoid
. The Carmacks-Pelly Crossing grasslands occupied southerly slopes that had compass orientations ranging from 95[degrees] to 268[degrees] (n = 306 measurements), of which 90% fell between 151[degrees] and 250[degrees] (Table 2).
is an annual species that could completely die off if re-seeding does not occur.
The study sites lie in the northern Arctic tundra zone (Elvebakk 2005) which is characterized by graminoid
and dwarf-shrub tundra.
(iii) The cover types classified as snow/ice (glacial, nonglacial), sparse vegetation, barren (bare ground with no vegetation), frost worked-soil (cryptogam crust, frost boils with sparse graminoids
and cryptogam plants), tundra (graminoid
, shrub), wetlands (bog, fen, swamp, and marsh), and forest (broadleaf, conifer, mixed wood).
A physiognomic analysis for the combined sites revealed the flora consisted of 77 (21.6%) woody species, 202 (56.8%) herbaceous forbs and vine species, 74 (20.8%) graminoid
species (grasses and sedges), and three (0.8%) ferns and allies.
In summer of 2016, five growing seasons after the Church Park fire, total plant cover averaged 38% on untreated plots and consisted primarily of forbs (29%) with lesser amounts of graminoid
(5%) and shrub (4%) species.
Species richness at HU sites was highest in hydric pine flatwoods, followed by cypress and graminoid
(grasses & sedges) plant communities, whereas saltwater marshes had the lowest richness (Table 2).
Erect herb, aquatic herb, trailing and prostrate herb, cushion plant, tussock graminoid
, scattered graminoid
, tufted grass, acaulescent rosettes, and non-vascular plants (values: average [+ o -] standard error).