grand jury

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Related to grand jury: petit jury

grand jury,

in law, body of persons selected to inquire into crimes committed within a certain jurisdiction. It usually comprises a greater number than the trial, or petit (also, petty) jury, having since early common lawcommon law,
system of law that prevails in England and in countries colonized by England. The name is derived from the medieval theory that the law administered by the king's courts represented the common custom of the realm, as opposed to the custom of local jurisdiction that
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 days had between 12 and 23 members. In the United States, federal grand juries have between 16 and 23 jurors. The grand jury receives complaints and accusations in criminal cases, hears evidence adduced by the state, and approves an indictmentindictment
, in criminal law, formal written accusation naming specific persons and crimes. Persons suspected of crime may be rendered liable to trial by indictment, by presentment, or by information.
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 when satisfied that there is enough evidence against the accused to warrant a trial. It was not until the 17th cent. that the grand jury acquired its modern functions as a check on the discretion of prosecutors and a way of preventing unjustified and politically motivated prosecutions. Grand juries have investigative functions as well, and are sometimes impaneled to issue reports on, e.g., suspected official wrongdoing.

The rules governing grand jury proceedings are very different from those governing trials by (petit) jury. The public is not admitted to hearings, and witnesses can be compelled to testify. The procedure is inquisitorial rather than adversarial: the defense is not allowed to call witnesses, and the prosecutor is not obliged to present both sides of the case. Hearsay and other evidenceevidence,
in law, material submitted to a judge or a judicial body to resolve disputed questions of fact. The rules discussed in this article were developed in England for use in jury trials.
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 that might be excluded at a jury trial may be introduced.

The use of grand juries declined in the 20th cent., in part because they were perceived as prone to either prosecutorial domination or abuse of their investigatory role. Britain abandoned them in the 1930s, and today fewer than half of U.S. states employ them. The information, a written statement issued by a prosecutor, has largely replaced the indictment. The Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, however, guarantees a grand jury inquiry to anyone accused in federal court of a capital "or otherwise infamous" (i.e., a felony) crime.

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grand jury

Law (esp in the US and, now rarely, in Canada) a jury of between 12 and 23 persons summoned to inquire into accusations of crime and ascertain whether the evidence is adequate to found an indictment. Abolished in Britain in 1948
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
A true bill, for those unfamiliar with the term, is the grand jury's "verdict" and indicates that a majority of grand jurors believe that there is probable cause to support the proposed charge(s).
Indeed, leaving the grand jury to do what it will without any prosecutorial recommendation risks the return of unfounded indictments.
The former military officer was again jailed for two months on March 8, after she refused to testify before a grand jury here.
Manning's lawyers released a statement, which said that she was released from Alexandria Detention Centre on civil contempt charges after she refused to testify before a grand jury investigating WikiLeaks.
The corporation has been racking up fines of $50,000 a day for not complying with the grand jury subpoena for documents.
Manning has said she objects to the secrecy of the grand jury process, and that she already revealed everything she knows at her court martial.
"Currently pending before the Court is Defendants' motion to compel disclosure of the legal instructions the Government provided to the grand jury.
The "real number" of abused children and abusive priests might be higher, since some secret church records were lost and some victims never came forward, the grand jury said.
Bishops and other leaders of the Roman Catholic Church in Pennsylvania covered up child sexual abuse by more than 300 priests over a period of 70 years, persuading victims not to report the abuse and law enforcement not to investigate it, according to a searing report issued by a grand jury on Tuesday.
In contrast to the bureaucratic procedures of our anti-money laundering law, the grand jury quickly issued a freeze order on Napoles' assets in the US after the US justice department presented evidence that, on its face, showed they were sourced from the pork barrel funds of some Filipino congressmen and senators.
OKLAHOMA CITY Although the House committee investigating the Oklahoma State Department of Health has garnered more attention, many of the same witnesses are testifying before a grand jury, which will decide whether officials committed any crimes while they mismanaged millions of dollars.