Villaseca, C., Herreros, V (2000): A sustained felsic magmatic system: the Hercynian granitic batholith of the Spanish Central System.
(1998): Crustal origin of Hercynian peraluminous granitic batholiths of central Spain: petrological, geochemical and isotopic (Sr,Nd) arguments.
Plate tectonic activity influences biological evolution in terms of size and shape of the continents and ocean basins; topography of the land; morphology and depth of the sea floor; features such as mountain ranges-both oceanic and terrestrial; spreading centers; mantle plumes; ocean currents; temperature; nutrients and chemistry of sea water; climate; sedimentary environments; location, size and type of igneous activity such as emplacement of granitic batholiths
; and extrusion of large igneous basaltic provinces.
In the moments of most intense orogenic activity, basaltic and granitic batholiths totally or partially crossed through the sedimentary series and emerged at the surface, as a result of either extrusion during tectonic activity or later surface erosion.
This diversity is responsible for the differential erosion, which has clear effects on the relief at many different scales: the marked relief of calcareous rocks and sandstones with their steep slopes and large scarps is in sharp contrast to the solid, massive forms of granitic batholiths, while marls open up the wide corridors formed by the main river network, and the slates adopt slightly raised convex forms, susceptible to movements en masse.
Large displacements also occur, although autochthonous materials also emerged, consisting of metamorphic sediments and granitic batholiths. This part of the range contains the highest points on earth, with many peaks higher than 26,247 ft (8,000 m).
In the Pyrenees, it is also possible to distinguish between a Paleozoic axis in which some granitic batholiths (Maladeta, Panticosa, etc.), with solid, heavy forms occupy the highest reliefs and contrast with the smoothness of the large outcrops of slates and schists, affected by massive movements at depth.