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Related to grapheme: Graphene


A pictorial representation of a semanteme, such as X-reference for cross-reference.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the smallest distinctive unit of written speech, corresponding to the phoneme in oral speech—a, b, and so on. The system of graphemes of a particular writing system makes up the system’s alphabet.

The grapheme must be distinguished from the letter, which corresponds to a sound of speech (A, a, a, and so on), and from a graphic combination (that is, a collection of letters), which is regularly used in the particular writing system to designate a certain phoneme (for example, ch represents the phonemes [#x222B;], [x], and [t∫] in the French, German, and English writing systems, respectively). The term “grapheme” was introduced in 1912 by I. A. Baudouin de Courtenay.


Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. Ob otnoshenii russkogo pis’ma krusskomu iazyku. St. Petersburg, 1912.
Volotskaia, Z. M., T. N. Moloshnaia, and T. M. Nikolaeva. Opyt opisaniia russkogo iazyka v ego pis’mennoi forme. Moscow, 1964.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(1) See also graphene.

(2) A displayed or printed letter of the alphabet with all of its accent marks in place. See glyph.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Mirror reversals of graphemes (letters) were accepted as correct, unless they lead to other correct graphemes (e.g., rob as rod; speaker as sqeaker).
This way, the atypical perception of speech would be the direct cause of dyslexia, because the non-perception of phonemes specifically affects the mapping between graphemes and phonemes, damaging the understanding about the alphabetic principle.
Mullen, Transparent, Conductive grapheme electrodes for dye sensitizes solar cells, Nano Lett., 8, 323 (2008).
The vehicle is claimed to be the first supercar to be built partially from grapheme. Other parts are made from traditional carbon-fibre, titanium and Kevlar.
Iran has unveiled eight nano carbon products with carbon structure; grapheme, graphene oxide, single-walled and multi-walled nano tubes, carbon nano filters, carbon nano balls and porous nano graphenes so far.
In regular orthographies, the pronunciation of each word clearly and unambiguously reflects its spelling (Ellis, 1995) by transposing each grapheme (consisting of one or two letters) to a phoneme (speech sound) using rules of correspondence (Nilsen & Bourassa, 2008).
She presented her societal impacted innovative research works like grapheme, bio-nanomaterial for diabetes, psoriasis & cancer, superparamagnetic plants materials and anti-virus nanomaterial for Ebola in Research Industry Collaboration Hub (RICH) Program with a title, “Advanced Nanomaterials for Sensors & Other Applications.” It is noted here that she is the only one woman speaker from Tamilnadu, in this event which makes a new milestone for the research activities of this university.
In Arabic script, letters can share the same basic grapheme distinguished only by the presence, position and number of dots {e.g., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]} (Azzam, 1993).