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A pictorial representation of a semanteme, such as X-reference for cross-reference.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the smallest distinctive unit of written speech, corresponding to the phoneme in oral speech—a, b, and so on. The system of graphemes of a particular writing system makes up the system’s alphabet.

The grapheme must be distinguished from the letter, which corresponds to a sound of speech (A, a, a, and so on), and from a graphic combination (that is, a collection of letters), which is regularly used in the particular writing system to designate a certain phoneme (for example, ch represents the phonemes [#x222B;], [x], and [t∫] in the French, German, and English writing systems, respectively). The term “grapheme” was introduced in 1912 by I. A. Baudouin de Courtenay.


Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. Ob otnoshenii russkogo pis’ma krusskomu iazyku. St. Petersburg, 1912.
Volotskaia, Z. M., T. N. Moloshnaia, and T. M. Nikolaeva. Opyt opisaniia russkogo iazyka v ego pis’mennoi forme. Moscow, 1964.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(1) See also graphene.

(2) A displayed or printed letter of the alphabet with all of its accent marks in place. See glyph.
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References in periodicals archive ?
(1) Though the term graphemics is also used to refer to this linguistic level of analysis, graphology is the preferred term in this paper.
The following section discusses the graphemic realisations of the most popular derivational suffixes, both native and borrowed ones.
Initial acquisition of mental graphemic representations in children with language impairment.
Several guidelines have been reported to define the structure of a pronunciation lexicon, ranging from simple two-column ASCII lexicons providing the mapping between graphemic and phonemic transcriptions, to more general de-facto standards and new standardization attempts, which are also handling multiple orthographies and multiple pronunciations.
proposed that the "phonomotor rehabilitation program induced modifications at the declarative-procedural interface instantiating abstract symbolic entities (graphemes and graphemic sequences) as motor programs" [16].
Used with English as a second language students, Bernhardt's (1991) recall protocol illustrated that the difficulties students have understanding the second language may be a result of a number of influences: metacognition, syntactic features, intratextual perceptions, phonemic or graphemic elements, and/or word recognition.
Clyne (2003 : 76-80) discusses the following types of transference: lexical, multiple, morphemic, semantic, syntactic, lexicosyntactic, semanticosyntactic, phonological, phonic, graphemic, prosodic, tonemic, and pragmatic.
Michel Chion's study of the acousmetre-effect (the disembodied voice) is reframed as evidence of the way the graphemic element of film precedes any illusion of voice-as-expressive.
Blending is a frequent and productive word-formation process that can be defined as follows: blending involves the coinage of a new lexeme by fusing parts of at least two other source words of which either one is shortened in the fusion and/or where there is some form of phonemic or graphemic overlap of the source words; some typical and well-known examples are given in (1).
These linguistic foundations include knowledge and awareness of orthography, phonology, and morphology, as well as clear and concise mental graphemic representations (Apel & Masterson, 2001; Masterson & Crede, 1999).