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graphene, virtually transparent, highly conductive carbon material in which the atoms are organized into a honeycomblike arrangement and form a thin sheet that is one atom thick. Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov won the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the material (2004) and experiments concerning its properties. The structure and properties of graphene make it suitable for a broad range of applications, and it is being investigated for possible use in such products as smart displays, ultrafast transistors, tough composites, and quantum-dot computers. Some of the material's unique properties—electrons move through graphene like massless waves—also have allowed physicists to use simple benchtop laboratory equipment, rather than expensive telescopes and particle accelerators, to test quantum mechanical predictions, and it has been used to contain liquids for for study with electron microscopes.
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(1) See also grapheme.

(2) A carbon layer one atom thick derived from the mineral graphite. Looking like chicken wire and considered a 2D material, graphene is naturally found as layers making up graphite. The graphene layers are separated by various exfoliation methods.

Extraordinary Properties
Graphene's mechanical, electrical, optical, thermal and chemical properties are outstanding, and it has been touted as a "miracle material." The 2D sheets can be layered together, fabricated into wires (nanoribbons), flakes, disk-shaped platelets or quantum dots for many applications. In addition, graphene can be added to metals, ceramics, plastics and rubber to make products stronger, lighter, more heat resistant or more flexible.

As the most conductive material on the planet, in time, graphene is expected to supplant silicon in electronics fabrication; however, hurdles must be overcome. For example, graphene has no bandgap; the most essential semiconductor attribute. See bandgap.

Graphene is expected to be a foundation nanotechnology component that revolutionizes industries and future products. See nanotube and nanotechnology.

A 2D Graphene Layer
Resembling chicken wire, graphene layers are separated from graphite.

Graphene - From Soup to Nuts
Ron Mertens' Graphene Handbook educates the reader from the ground up about graphene's properties, shapes, uses and potential. A must read for anyone who wants to truly learn about this amazing material. For more information, visit
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References in periodicals archive ?
M2 PRESSWIRE-September 3, 2019-: Global Monolayer Graphene Film Market Industry Outlook, Demand, Key Manufacturers and Forecast to 2019
I am also confident that, together, we are going to make a global success of graphene electronic products.'
"Samsung is hoping to have at least one handset either next year or in 2021, I'm told, which will feature a graphene battery instead," the leaker tweeted.
In this work, we investigated the possibility of using the AG--AB reaction with respect to graphene films grown on semi-insulating SiC substrates to create an electrochemical analyser (biosensor) in which acceptors or electron donors are protein antigens and antibodies that interact with each other.
Various processing routes have been reported for dispersing both graphene and graphite oxide derived fillers into polymer matrices [13].
At a thickness of only one atom, graphene is the strongest and thinnest material in the world.
Graphene has recently generated the enthusiasm and excitement in the automotive industry for paint, polymer and battery applications, said a statement from the company.