Therefore, the relevance of this research is two-fold: First, we propose a new, powerful and simple non-parametric test to assess measurement invariance which can be used to evaluate any rating or graphic scale; Second we apply the new test to provide robust results to the analysis of measurement invariance considering uncertainty in responses in an important field of consumer psychology, such as perceived service quality research.
A single-item graphic scale for the measurement of organizational identification.
For both visual graphic scales, we showed three lines with different length (50, 75 and 100 mm).
Table 1 presents the distributions, means, and standard deviations of the graphic scale in the five samples.
Table 2 presents the correlations of the graphic scale with the verbal scales of identification and with other variables.
A graphic scale might break the uniform appearance of the questionnaire and consequently the routine manner of providing responses.