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the study of handwriting, esp to analyse the writer's character



the study of handwriting, the investigation of handwriting to discern the characteristics and psychic state of the writer reflected in it.

Handwriting is a type of expressive movement, with the special feature that it is “self-recording” and thus is always open to study. The view of handwriting as a distinct expression of a man goes back to antiquity (Theophrastus and others); the first experiments in graphology date from the period of the Renaissance (the work of the Italian scholar C. Baldo, 1622). As a special discipline, graphology arose in the second half of the 19th century in France (J. Michon, who introduced the term “graphology” in 1872; Crépieux-Jamin); handwriting was regarded at this time as a system of stable written traits each corresponding to a particular character trait. At the end of the 19th century the German school of graphology was formed (G. Meyer, W. Preyer and especially L. Klages); in opposition to the isolated interpretation of separate traits, the concept was developed of the double meaning and even multiple meaning of each separate written sign, the concrete meaning of which could be determined only on the level of analysis of handwriting as a “total form” (Klages). Along with other methods, such as tests, graphological data are used for the study in psychology, medicine, and criminal law of the individual characteristics of a person as a method of psychological and physiological diagnosis.

IU. N. POpov

Graphology in criminal law. The Italian scientist C. Lombroso thought that handwriting was an innate and invariable human function and that it allows one to distinguish the traits which characterize the “criminal type” (this concept became one of the bases of the anthropological school of criminal law).

While rejecting these ideas about handwriting as an innate function of the human organism, contemporary criminologists study the process of the formation of handwriting, which has a specific and habitual character, and also investigate the various correlations between handwriting and the personality of the writer—such as the difference between the handwriting of men and women and between that of children and old people, as well as the professional peculiarities of many elements of the written discourse of the writer.

A. I. VInberg


Michon. J. H. Système de graphologie. Paris, 1875
Klages. L. Handschrift und Charakter, 25th printing. Bonn, 1965.
Pulver, M. Symbolik der Handschrift, 6th printing. Zürich, 1955.
References in periodicals archive ?
Together with this difficulty, there is also a general consensus that graphology is neither relevant nor interesting in itself and, to some extent, some people still misunderstand the real meaning of this word.
Not surprisingly, the period of greatest interest in graphology coincided roughly with the Freudian psychoanalytic movement, in all its reductive and suppositional glory.
fascinated by graphology, rejected Klages' formalist and vitalist
Another Holmes working in the late nineteenth century--Sherlock--is portrayed as a believer that handwriting manifested personality and as an expert in graphology.
The pseudoscience of graphology claimed to be able to deduce a person's character traits from his or her handwriting.
His work formed the basis of modern graphology, although the science is still researched and expanded.
He holds that graphology is a way of seeing in an "exterior" way the "inner" life, a notion which has parallels in Borges's ideas of the same period that character can be presented in fiction in an externalized way through "visual scenes," and that there is no need to follow the conventions of what he calls "psychological" fiction: the stories of Historia universal de la infamia, for instance, "no son, no tratan de ser, psicologicos" (1: 341).
In this way, graphology, is a mode, using different physical and mental processes, it indicates that the transcriptional system of writing is a multimodal system.
graphology (Beanz Meanz Heinz), and strong sound effects,
There are inherent disciplines in this dimension such as phonology, morphology, graphology and syntax which play an essential role in teaching and learning the language forms (Larsen-Freeman, 2003).
46) In complement to stylistic inference, Frigel was guided by the more material considerations of codicology, palaeography, and graphology.
I also deploy graphology to aid the reading voice' stress, and avoid all punctuation except the occasional exclamation mark.