The Haversine formula is an important equation in navigation to calculate the shortest great-circle distance
over the earth's surface for a given longitudes and latitudes.
We conclude our instruction with a method of finding the shortest distance between two points on the surface of the Earth (the great-circle distance).
However, he did not explain how to calculate the great-circle distance.
Make sure that they measure the angle in radians and multiply it by the radius of the Earth to get the great-circle distance.
A closed-form formula for the great-circle distance
On the earth's surface, the spatial distance, or geo-distance, can be defined as the sphere distance with shortest path, which is the curve of great-circle distance (Wikipedia, 2009a).
This requires the calculation of the distance from a given point to the line, the arc line on the surface of the earth, defined by the two locations based on the great-circle distance. The route can be defined by a real route, such as the one following interstate highway exits.
There are a number of sphere formulae, such as great-circle distance equation, that can be used.
Great-Circle Distance. Retrieved March 29, 2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great-circle_distance
Genetic distance is not associated with the great-circle distance between islands (r = 0.12, P [greater than] 0.05).
The relative importance of sea barriers to population subdivision compared with land separation is further emphasized by the lack of an association between genetic distance and great-circle distance, because the latter measure is dominated by overland distance.
The contemporary minimum sea-crossing distance between islands accounts for 67% of the variance of genetic distance, whereas the great-circle distance between islands does not account for any significant part of the variance of genetic distance (a result also observed in the Philippine C.