green revolution


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Green Revolution,

term referring mainly to dramatic increases in cereal-grain yields in many developing countries beginning in the late 1960s, due largely to use of genetically improved varieties. Beginning in the mid-1940s in Mexico researchers led by American Norman E. BorlaugBorlaug, Norman Ernest
, 1914–2009, U.S. agronomist, b. near Saude, Iowa, grad. Univ. of Minn. (Ph.D., 1942). He worked as researcher with the E. I. du Pont Company until 1944, when he joined the Rockefeller Foundation in Mexico.
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 developed broadly adapted, short-stemmed, disease-resistant wheats that excelled at converting fertilizer and water into high yields. The improved seeds were instrumental in boosting Mexican wheat production and averting famine in India and Pakistan, earning Borlaug the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize. Significant though less dramatic improvements followed in corn. The Mexican program inspired a similarly successful rice-research effort in the Philippines and a network of research centers dedicated to the important food crops and environments of the developing world. More recent research has sought to respond to criticism that the Green Revolution depends on fertilizers, irrigation, and other factors that poor farmers cannot afford and that may be ecologically harmful; and that it promotes monocultures and loss of genetic diversity.

green revolution

the introduction of new species of crops and new techniques leading to greater crop yields. This began in Mexico in the 1950s, and from the mid-1960s new high-yielding varieties of rice and wheat were introduced in many THIRD WORLD countries. The most noticeable applications were in the Indian subcontinent where new strains of rice enabled double-cropping, eliminating a fallow period in the agricultural cycle. For a while these innovations were seen by many as solving food-supply problems. However, new problems arose, one of the most significant being that the new strains require heavy inputs of fertilizer, pesticides and machinery For Third World countries, these can be very expensive imports, and small farmers have been unable to gain access to the credit financing necessary for full advantage to be taken. Generally a p rocess of increasing impoverishment of poor farmers has resulted, with increasing income inequalities, a concentration of landholding and variable increases in food supplies. As Griffin (1979) points out, this was an example of a technological fix approach based on assumptions that technical solutions can operate independently of the institutional environment. He sums up by saying ‘the story of the green revolution is the story of a revolution that failed’. see also INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY.
References in periodicals archive ?
Norman Borlaug, a scientist who spearheaded the Green Revolution and won the Nobel Prize in 1970, also laid the groundwork for some of what can be achieved in Africa.
"This is a peaceful answer to Naxalism that Green Revolution can bring in a positive change in society rather than violence," said Raman Singh.
The forum is hosted by the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), an African-led institution focused on putting farmers at the centre of the continent's growing economies.
Stressing the urgent need for use of scientific methods for farming to increase productivity, Iftikhar said it was high time that the country goes for green revolution.
The second area highlighted by Narayanan was the achievement of the green revolution leading to self sufficiency in our food requirements.
'Green revolution' means greening India by the cultivation of crops in a revolutionary manner.
The "Green Revolution" refers to dramatic increases in agricultural production that began in the second half of the twentieth century.
The green revolution has had a dramatic impact on incomes and food supplies in many developing countries.
The first Green Revolution began in 1963 when IRRI developed the IR8 rice variety which raised rice production from 1.5 tons per hectare to four tons per hectre.
The article "Hidden Downsides of the Green Revolution" (June/July 2014) was excellent and right to the point--the best thing I've read in a long time concerning the Green Revolution.
The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), is boosting Africa's commercial seed sector through their Program for Africa's Seed System which strives to dramatically increase local capacity to grow, produce and disseminate quality seed of staple food crops.
European funding worth [euro]1.5m will support a project to explore whether the 'spillover effect' can achieve a green revolution in behaviour It is widely understood by scientists that in order to tackle climate change a revolution in individual behaviour needs to happen.

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