The system parameters are the following: i) single-phase grid voltage at 127 V, 60 Hz; ii) grid characteristic
inductance ([L.sub.S]) is 500 [micro]H, which yields a weak power grid with a short-circuit power equal to 10 p.u.; iii) induction motor is rated at 460 V, 60 Hz, 10 kW and 1760 rpm; output step-up three-phase transformer of delta-delta type rated at 220 V//460 V, 25 kVA.
Variables and Definition Observation parameters [x.sub.1r] [v.sub.g]/([L.sub.1] Nonaccessible to + [L.sub.g]) measurements [x.sub.2r] [[??].sub.g]/([L.sub.1] Nonaccessible to + [L.sub.g]) measurements [[theta].sub.1] ([r.sub.1] + [r.sub.g]) Unknown parameter /([L.sub.1] + [L.sub.g]) [[theta].sub.2] 1/([L.sub.1] + [L.sub.g]) Unknown parameter TABLE 2: PV system and single-phase grid characteristics
. Parameters Symbol Value Network [E.sub.n]/f 220[square root of (2)] V/50 Hz Boost [C.sub.pv], 2 mF, 0.3 mH, 5 m[OHM] [L.sub.0], [r.sub.0] LCL-filter [L.sub.1], 2 mH, 5 m[OHM], 5 [micro]F, [r.sub.1], C, 2 mH, 5 m[OHM] [L.sub.2], [r.sub.2] PWM switching [f.sub.PWM] 14 Khz frequency DC capacitance [C.sub.dc] 4mF TABLE 3: Controller parameters.
Virtual Grid processing simulates grid use for exams acquired without a grid, so it eliminates physical grid-related misalignment issues, tunes image contrast, and emulates grid characteristics
such as grid ratio, density and interspace material.
It discusses Smart Grid characteristics
, challenges, opportunities, and other aspects; Smart Grid technologies and roadmaps; the Smart Grid as an integrated grid; lessons learned from Smart Grid demonstrations from around the world; enhancing the resiliency of the grid; an operating system to facilitate it; the grid as a terrorist target; assuring cyber security; the benefits and cost of the grid; and factors affecting the demand for electricity from the Smart Grid.
Designed to simulate grid characteristics
, the 61800 is suitable for testing PV inverter, online UPS, smart grid, vehicle to grid, and energy storage system applications as well as common electrical product testing such as home appliances and industrial electronics requiring a programmable input source Chroma Systems Solutions, www.rsleads.com/401ee-197
It is necessary to develop a novel vulnerability quantification scheme that is suitable to smart grid characteristics
VO is the key factor of grid characteristics
as an important interface between the grid resource layer (resource provider) and the grid service layer (resource consumer), which can bind grid resource service level with grid application service protocol by searching and matching within VO.
To support the smart grid service in 3GPP cellular networks, it is important to resolve technical issues caused by the smart grid characteristics
that differ from cellular communications, i.e., group based management or congestion control.
Basic double-row bladed disk characteristics of one of the researched running disks and the dependence of relative loss factor [bar.[xi]] on grid characteristics
are shown in Fig.
and distribution sector are not fully ready for implementation of Net Metering.
The grid size of the multi-block CSP consisted of 500,000 cells, and the grid characteristics
are summarized in Table 1.