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process by which surface material is removed from an object, usually metal, by the abrasive action of a rotating wheel or a moving belt that contains abrasive grains. A grinding wheel can be made by mixing a bonding material, usually clay, with abrasive grains of such substances as silicon carbide or aluminum oxide. The mixture is then shaped into a wheel and hardened. A grindstone is a grinding wheel made by shaping naturally occurring sandstone, which contains abrasive quartz grains. Grinding is used in many manufacturing processes to produce a fine surface finish on an object and to bring the size of an object to within very fine tolerances. A grinding machine has devices that hold an unfinished object and move it past the machine's abrasive wheel or belt, which is driven by a motor. For less exacting work, such as sharpening cutting tools, objects can be hand held and ground by a machine consisting mainly of an abrasive wheel or belt. For many products grinding is only one step in a finishing process that involves additional similar operations such as honing, lapping, polishing, and buffing.



(1) In metalworking, the machining of surfaces of workpieces with an abrasive tool. It is performed on grinding machines and other types of meal-cutting machine tools by means of special attachments (such as grinding heads), as well as by hand. A distinction is made between grinding in which the peripheral speed of the tool is approximately 20 m/sec and high-speed grinding, in which the peripheral speed is greater than 50 m/sec. Grinding makes it possible to fabricate metal parts having a precision of class 1 and a surface roughness of class 10. It is widely used to machine external and internal flat, cylindrical, conical, and irregularly shaped surfaces of workpieces made from metals, plastics, ceramics, ferrites, stone, and wood. Rough grinding is also used to some extent to remove large machining allowances from cast pig iron and steel workpieces.

The various types of grinding include external and internal cylindrical grinding, grinding with a planetary motion, external and internal centerless grinding, surface grinding, and grinding of special shapes.

Electrochemical grinding is used to work metals that are difficult to machine. Current-conducting grinding wheels are fed with a DC current, and an electrolyte is supplied to the cutting zone. Grinding can also be performed by means of vibration machining with an abrasive powder suspended in a liquid.

A carborundum abrasive tool is usually used to grind stone. The process may be accomplished by grinders or by hand.

(2) In groats production, grinding removes the germ and the outer parts of the kernel, thereby imparting a definite shape and uniformity to the crushed grains.


Maslov, E. N. Teoriia shlifovaniia materialov. Moscow, 1974.
Vul’f, A. M. Rezanie metallov, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1973.



A mechanical operation performed on silicon substrates of semiconductors to provide a smooth surface for epitaxial deposition or diffusion of impurities.
A mechanical operation performed on quartz crystals to alter their physical size and hence their resonant frequencies.
(mechanical engineering)
Reducing a material to relatively small particles.
Removing material from a workpiece with a grinding wheel.
(mining engineering)
The act or process of continuing to drill after the bit or core barrel is blocked, thereby crushing and destroying any core that might have been produced.


Repetitive actions in a video game to accumulate points in order to gain experience or advance to the next level. Games may be designed for players to grind their way through in order to feel that they accomplished something. In addition, novices are allowed to make progress in a game with a lot of grinding; otherwise they would be stumped. See farming.
References in periodicals archive ?
So it came as little surprise to the retired legal secretary to learn, then, that stress is a major contributor to her teeth grinding.
Primary tool features include a high-performance, engineered, fused-alumina grain; a highly porous and permeable face for maximum coolant diffusion in the grinding zone; optimum grain spacing for improved chip clearance and reduced friction from "spot contact;" and an improved safety index when compared to classical vitrified porous structures.
Custom grinding systems for reducing plastics to fine powders.
The reduced labor costs and increased grinding speed from eliminating manual operations can save a foundry significant money.
Makino will configure a standard machining center to support the level of grinding that customers require so they will not need to purchase capability they do not need.
Rapid grinding techniques typically reduce the degating time by 0.
K Subramanian, who has been the center's director since it opened, "The HGTC has been focused on taking grinding from an art form to a science by utilizing the System Approach and through the use of advanced tools for measurement and analysis of grinding systems such as the Field Instrumentation System (FIS), product specification mapping and acoustic emission monitoring.
The team will travel from city to city, performing with the Soap brand at events and demonstrating the sport of grinding in support of retailers.
Mikro-Samplmill used in labs for analytical grinding.
Based on the results of a test trial, the grinding process is often adjusted to eliminate or reduce the occurrence of an unwanted outcome.
Robots are also applied to move castings through the grinding operations.
Blower-discharge models are for dry grinding and cases where processed materials are distributed to another area.