Sunlight reflects off ice sheets, but the darker, dirtier ground ice
absorbs sunlight leading to faster melting.
Other features on Mars hint at near-surface ground ice
was forming during the first week in September and everyone was getting their last supplies of the year in by sea-lift.
The plumes were detected over locales that show either evidence of ancient ground ice
or the flow of liquid water, including the Nili Fossae region, an area east of Arabia Terra and the southeast quadrant of an ancient volcano called Syrtis Major.
The three regions releasing gas also showed evidence of ancient ground ice
or flowing water.
The flood of images sent back by Phoenix revealed a landscape similar to what can be found in Earth's permafrost regions - geometric patterns in the soil likely related to the freezing and thawing of ground ice
is in the final stages of developing its own system to detect ground ice
They calculated a settlement index by multiplying the relative increase of active-layer thickness by the volumetric proportion of near-surface soil containing ground ice
When half the ground ice
bound and missing NINE players through injury, there is always room for excuses, but Jeffrey insisted: "Our motto has always been not to make excuses so we'll not start now.
Segura (University of Colorado) and her colleagues argue that hot ejecta produced by the very largest impacts might have affected the entire planet, creating enough heat to vaporize or melt the polar caps and near-surface ground ice
, produce widespread rainfall, and maintain surface temperatures above freezing for as long as 1,000 years.
Instead, he notes, the small amount of water "may just be very local melting of near-surface ground ice
," warmed by the planet's internal heat or perhaps by the sun during periods when the north or south pole is tilted closer to the sun.