ground state


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Ground state

In quantum mechanics, the stationary state of lowest energy of a particle or a system of particles. The ground state may be bound or unbound; when bound, its energy generally is a finite amount less than the energy of the next higher or first excited state. In the typical circumstance that the potential energy is zero at infinite separation, the magnitude of the negative ground-state energy is the binding energy, that is, the energy required to separate all the particles infinitely. See Energy level (quantum mechanics), Excited state, Nuclear binding energy

ground state

See energy level.

ground state

[′grau̇nd ‚stāt]
(quantum mechanics)
The stationary state of lowest energy of a particle or a system of particles.
References in periodicals archive ?
It is seen that the increase of the magnetic field does not change the symmetry of the charge distribution in the ground state, providing only the spatial confinement around the donor location without mixing of the ground state with excited states.
From the total energy curves, the ground state lattice constants and bulk moduli [B.sub.0] have been obtained and are compared to available experimental data in Table 1.
For all the investigated reactions, DFT-B3LYP-Def2-TZVP and CASSCF-MRMP2 calculations were performed to obtain the energy profiles that join the ground state of the reactants with the observed products in the IR-matrix spectra, mainly the oxide complex OM([[eta].sub.2]-SO) and the sulfide oxide SM[O.sub.2].
If curlA [equivalent to] 0 [equivalent to] curlB or A and B are both continuous at 0, then (2) has a nontrivial ground state solution.
Previous results make evident the fact that the hidden symmetry, induced by the increasing magnetic field in systems with the cone-type morphology, provides a quenching of the AB oscillations of the lower energy levels and a multifold quasi-degeneration of the ground state. One can expect that it is possible to suppress or strengthen the escalation of rotational trajectories induced by the magnetic field, by applying a sufficiently strong electric field along the z-axis and breaking in this way the hidden conical symmetry and restoring the AB oscillations.
The QCD sum rules are modified by including the contribution of the first radial excited states in addition to the ground state. Our predictions on the masses of the first radial excited states baryons are in good agreement with the experimental data.
The ground state properties of CdO are studied from their total energies obtained from our calculation.
In this mechanism, unstacked or poorly stacked pairs of bases relax to the ground state by an ultrafast internal conversion through the conical intersection (CI) between the lowest excited state and ground state of the monomer.
The excited electron is only allowed by selection rules to return to the ground state, if and only if, its spin is opposed to that of the ground state electron.
They have found that all clusters (4 [less than or equal to] n [less than or equal to] 15) have the lowest spin state as their ground state except [Al.sub.4] (triplet), [Al.sub.4.sup.+] (quartet), [Al.sub.7.sup.-] (triplet), and maybe [Al.sub.5.sup.+] (singlet and triplet are degenerate).
Called ground state depletion followed by individual molecule return (GSDIM), the new method allows users to control the emission of fluorochromes, localizing the position of single molecules far below the diffraction limit.
The "Orbitals" tab shows a complete orbital readout for each element's ground state, quantum numbers, oxidation states, and diagram following Hund's rules.