ground state


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Ground state

In quantum mechanics, the stationary state of lowest energy of a particle or a system of particles. The ground state may be bound or unbound; when bound, its energy generally is a finite amount less than the energy of the next higher or first excited state. In the typical circumstance that the potential energy is zero at infinite separation, the magnitude of the negative ground-state energy is the binding energy, that is, the energy required to separate all the particles infinitely. See Energy level (quantum mechanics), Excited state, Nuclear binding energy

ground state

See energy level.

ground state

[′grau̇nd ‚stāt]
(quantum mechanics)
The stationary state of lowest energy of a particle or a system of particles.
References in periodicals archive ?
Hence, the second line of table 1 shows the ground state of the [I.
For instance, adding an extra electron to the quantum dot generally produces a ground state structure of energy levels resembling that observed when the quantum dot, was in its first excited state, before the addition.
In this section, we also compare the results from this model with a standard ground state energy curve calculated by Kolos, Szalewics and Monkhorst (KSM curve) [6].
Scully's team used external laser beams to produce what are, in effect, two different paths from the ground state to a particular excited state of a rubidium atom.
Fock states in the mechanical resonator, reaching the ground state of such an anharmonic oscillator will allow studies of quantum tunnelling of a macroscopic object from its metastable minimum when biased with a large gate voltage.
The transition rate depends on the overlap between the ground state wavefunction for a low energy collision and the excited bound state wavefunction.
By applying the proper sequence of pulses, one can presumably place an array of these particles into any desired pattern of states, including superpositions of the excited and ground states.
The strongest spectral line in the ultraviolet occurs when an electron in a hydrogen atom jumps from the first excited state to the ground state, losing energy in the process.
The final piece of the bottomonia puzzle is the measurement of the Xb excited states, which have never been measured in heavy-ion collisions, but which give a significant feed-down contribution to the Y(1S) ground state.
In the other case, the light excites an ion from its ground state to a slightly higher energy level and the scattered light no longer has a preferred polarization direction.
It is now possible to use light to prepare and sense the quantum ground state of a nanomechanical oscillator.
They studied transitions from one energy level to another in a helium atom in which one electron has been excited so that it tends to remain much farther from the helium nucleus than it would in its ground state.