ground state

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Ground state

In quantum mechanics, the stationary state of lowest energy of a particle or a system of particles. The ground state may be bound or unbound; when bound, its energy generally is a finite amount less than the energy of the next higher or first excited state. In the typical circumstance that the potential energy is zero at infinite separation, the magnitude of the negative ground-state energy is the binding energy, that is, the energy required to separate all the particles infinitely. See Energy level (quantum mechanics), Excited state, Nuclear binding energy

ground state

See energy level.

ground state

[′grau̇nd ‚stāt]
(quantum mechanics)
The stationary state of lowest energy of a particle or a system of particles.
References in periodicals archive ?
In Figure 6 we display contour plots that show the evolution of the charge distribution in QR with off-center donor in the ground state under growing magnetic field.
To obtain the mass and residues of the radial excitations from the sum rules, we take the mass of the ground state as an input parameter.
The last pathway involves the lengthening [C.sub.spiro]-N bond and the internal conversion from the electronically excited states to the SP ground state through [CI.sub.S1/S0] (CN) [38-40].
All the ground state structures of the [Ni.sub.2][Al.sub.6], [Ni.sub.2][Al.sub.7], and [Ni.sub.2][Al.sub.9] clusters have the same [C.sub.2v] symmetry.
In this work, a special emphasis is given to the following issue: Contrary to a naive expectation, even the ground state of a simple atom is written as a sum of more than one configuration.
The observed lineshapes for the purely long-range [0.sup.-.sub.g], molecular state enable as to establish key features of the ground state scattering wavefunction.
In other words, all the ground states with different aligned directions have the same energy, and so infinitely many ground states can exist realizing the infinitely degenerate ground states.
Exposing such a confined particle to a pulse of laser light of precisely the right wavelength and duration can readily kick it into an excited energy state; a second laser pulse can restore it to its ground state.
Recently some of us have shown that coherently with Lieb's theorem triangular structures have high-spin ground states and are ferromagnetic, while hexagonal and rhomboidal ones are open-shell low-spin structures of very high multireference character.
The results are interpreted in terms of the geometry of conical intersection (CI) between the first singlet ([S.sub.1]) excited state and ground state ([S.sub.0]), which was optimized by using CASSCF method.
The current paper is mainly motivated by [15] and applies the least energy solution obtained in [17,18] to show the existence of the ground state solution to the critical system (2) under proper conditions.