LPV (Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance) permits aircraft guided approaches operationally equivalent to ILS Cat 1 without the need for ground-based navigation aid
The ground-based navigation aid
which Glasgow Airport currently uses to guide aircraft to and from the airfield will be decommissioned in 2019.
Airport bosses hope when the ground-based navigation aids
are decommissioned in 2019 amid a move to satellite-based navigational systems, it will help reduce the amount of time planes queue, both in the air and on the ground, and reduce overall CO2 and fuel emissions.
The RNP AR procedure allows aircraft to automatically fly accurate trajectories without relying on ground-based navigation aids
, optimises airspace utilisation and reduces diversions in difficult weather conditions.
RNP uses GPS to help pilots optimise flight approach and departure tracks containing curves and vertical profiles that could not be flown accurately using ground-based navigation aids
, says Qantas's group executive for government and corporate affairs, David Epstein.
This technology, pioneered by Alaska Airlines in Juneau, allows aircraft to fly safer, more reliable landings and reduces reliance on ground-based navigation aids
Unlike traditional ground-based navigation aids
, WAAS provides augmentation information to GPS receivers, enhancing their accuracy throughout the National Airspace System.
GAGAN is one of several systems being deployed around the world as part of an initiative endorsed by the International Civil Aviation Organization to help civil aircraft transition to satellite-based signals from ground-based navigation aids
. The technology enhances navigation in all phases of flight, from take-off through landing.
But when they fly into low-visibility conditions like fog, rain, snow and blowing sand, pilots have difficulty making a safe approach and landing without ground-based navigation aids
PBN uses specialised equipment on board the aircraft to fly a defined path independent of ground-based navigation aids
. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) is an enhanced mode of PBN, which guarantees that the aircraft adheres precisely to the path.