If shell growth is seasonal, then the shells of coiled gastropods are likely to contain a record of their ontogenetic growth history of life in the form of a series of serially deposited growth rings
similar to those seen in members of the Bivalvia (Richardson 2001).
Regardless of forest management plan, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increased as growth ring
brasiliensis captured in the river Cuiaba (immediately above the Pantanal) and in the Manso Reservoir, in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, by reading the growth rings
Grain is defined by the average width of annual growth rings
on a tree.
Central samples measuring 0.02 m of width, with growth rings
oriented in radial direction and including a pith in the centre were cut from each disk.
grandis is one of the tropical species that shows clear growth rings
and suitable for climatic analysis (Chowdhury 1964, Detienne 1989, Bhattacharyya & Shah 2009).
A typical anatomical feature of the wood of many trees is either the presence of apotracheal terminal parenchyma or strongly lignified late wood fibres at the border of growth rings
. Numerous studies clearly indicate that parenchyma cells and late wood fibres of a range of broadleaved trees are resistant to degradation by brown rot and some weakly lignolytic white rot fungi
By matching ring patterns from the wood of a living tree with the wood of an older tree containing a partially overlapping growth ring
sequence and continuing with the partially overlapping older woods from trees long dead, a continuous chronology of climatic patterns can be established for a particular region.
The results in Figures 5 and 6 indicate that one growth ring
is formed each year, most likely from September to November for males and from October to November for females.
In dicot plants, a new layer of xylem is produced by the secondary growth system, the cambium, each year (or several times each year in some tropical trees) forming a new growth ring
in trunks and branches.
Wedge-shaped sections which result from radial sawing are stable, with consistent growth ring
orientation, and they shrink evenly; boards made out of the wedges are not stable, but cup in the same direction on drying, so they can be arranged consistently.